Derek Goldman (OU) Health and Wellbeing

Making sense of
Confidence, Motivation, Mindset and
Saturday 14th June 2014 : Stirling Management Centre
What we’ll cover today
• An exploration of confidence
• A closer look at motivation and
the growth mindset
• Some thoughts/insights into
• A broader look at wellbeing in the
• What is confidence?
• What does confidence look like?
• What are the barriers in
developing confidence in
ourselves and others?
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)
Professor Carol Dweck’s self-theories
Based currently at Stanford University in California
Over 30 years research in this area
Interested in student perceptions of themselves as learners
Self theory linked to self belief, motivation and future aspirations
Carol Dweck has been in Scotland several times, including another
planned trip in September 2014
Having a look at Mindset
Carol Dweck’s research within a historical context
1954: Reuven Feuerstein's work on the teaching of intelligence (see
Changing Children’s Minds by Howard Sharron, 1994)
1967: Michael Scriven – difference between Formative and
Summative assessments
1988: Terry Crooks demonstrates that there is little evidence that
classroom assessment assists in the learning process
Having a look at Mindset
Carol Dweck’s research within a historical context (contd.)
• 1998: Paul Black & Dylan William’s “Inside the Black Box” –
potential for assessment to provide feedback to improve
• 1999: John Hattie’s work on “Influences on student learning”
• 2000: Carol Dweck’s “Self Theories : Their Role in Motivation,
Personality and Development”
• 2006: Carol Dweck’s “Mindset – the new psychology of
• 2009: John Hattie’s “Visible Learning”
The Growth Mindset
“For twenty years, my research has shown that the
view you adopt for yourself profoundly affects the
way you lead your life. It can determine whether you
become the person you want to be and whether you
accomplish the things you value.
How does this happen?
How can a simple belief have the power to transform
your psychology and, as a result, your life?”
Professor Carol Dweck
Entity and Incremental Self Theories
about Intelligence
Self Theories: Entity (fixed mindset)
• Belief that my intelligence is fixed
• Born with a certain amount –
work within your limitations
• Don’t want to look stupid – so
avoid challenge
• Fear of failure or failure avoidance
• Set easy performance goals with
low challenge
Self Theories: Incremental (growth mindset)
Belief that my intelligence isn’t fixed
“I can develop and cultivate strategies
that can help me to improve”
“Failure is a gift. It means I will try
harder and revise my strategy next
time”. Fail forward.
“I’m open to critical feedback. I want
insight into how I can do better”
“I’m open to challenge and to test
“I have learning goals”
Fixed vs Growth Mindset
Mindset: The new psychology of success
“One of the ways great teachers stand out from others is that
they tend to have a growth mindset. They view achievement not
as innate, but rather as changeable — the result of hard work
and effort. In contrast, teachers with a fixed mindset create an
atmosphere of judging. These teachers look at students'
beginning performance and decide who's smart. Then they give
up on the others”.
Dweck writes, great teachers "believe in the growth of the
intellect and talent, and they are fascinated with the process of
Taken from ‘Mindset: The new psychology of success’
(Carol Dweck, 2006)
Developing the Growth Mindset
What can we do?
• Teachers demonstrate a growth mindset through their own
• They view achievement not as innate – but rather as
• The importance of praising for effort – not ability. Reflected
through verbal and written feedback – communication
• Thomas Edison’s adage – “genius is 1% inspiration and 99%
• Use of non linguistic, visual representations in the classroom
– posters, displays and so on
Developing the Growth Mindset
What can we do? (contd.)
• Growth mindset reflected and permeated through whole
school, or college culture, modelling, peer:peer interactions,
building a classroom and community of growth mindset
• Relate to other ideas e.g. coping with adversity/setback and
building resilience
• Plentiful curricular opportunities through ACfE
• Working with parents (esp. early years) – consistent
• Dweck thinks that great teachers challenge and nurture
students through building strong relationships
Kleinfeld (1976) ‘Warm demanders’
Teachers combined "high personal
warmth with high active
In the classrooms of these teachers,
students actively participated in
discussions and were willing to work
hard for their teachers, with whom
they had developed a positive,
mutually respectful rapport
What are the implications in
your own work?
Dr Karen Reivich: The Seven Learnable Skills
of Resilience
Emotional awareness/regulation
Impulse control
Causal analysis
Reaching out
Derek Goldman
Learning and Teaching Co-ordinator
The Open University in Scotland
Any questions?