a PowerPoint Presentation of Chapter 9

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Chapter 9
Physical and Cognitive
Development in Middle Childhood
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Body Growth
in Middle Childhood
 Slow, regular pace
 Girls shorter and lighter until about age
9, when trend reverses
 Lower portion of body grows fastest
 Bones lengthen, broaden
 Muscles very flexible
 All permanent teeth appear
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Common Health Problems
 Malnutrition
 Obesity
 32% of US
children and
adolescents
are overweight
 17% are
obese
 Illnesses
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Health Risks for Obese Children
 More likely to be overweight adults
 Physical symptoms:
 high blood pressure, cholesterol
 respiratory problems
 insulin resistance
 Development of lifelong problems:
 heart disease, diabetes, gall bladder
disease, cancer, early death
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Causes of Obesity
in Middle Childhood
 Overweight parents
 Low SES
 Parental feeding practices:
 overfeeding
 overly controlling




Insufficient sleep
Low physical activity
Television
Eating out
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Psychological and Social
Consequences of Obesity


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Stereotyping/teasing
Social isolation
Depression
Emotional, academic,
and behavior problems
 Reduced life chances
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Treating Obesity
 Family-based interventions:
 diet change
 exercise program
 positive reinforcement
 School environment:




screenings
improved nutrition standards
additional recess/physical education time
obesity awareness programs
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Illness in Middle Childhood
 High rates in first two
years of school
 15 percent have
chronic conditions:
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 asthma
 severe illnesses,
such as sickle cell
anemia, cancer, and
diabetes
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Asthma
 Bronchial tubes highly sensitive to
stimuli:
 cold, infection, allergies, stress
 wheezing, coughing, breathing problems
 Risk factors:





heredity
pollution
stressful home life
poor health care
obesity
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Motor Development
in Middle Childhood
 Gross-motor skill gains:




flexibility
balance
agility
force
 Fine-motor skill gains:
 writing
 drawing
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sex Differences in
Motor Development
 Girls better at fine-motor
skills
 Boys better at grossmotor skills, sports
 Social environment:
 parental expectations
 self-perceptions
 coaching, media
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Piaget’s Theory: Attainments of the
Concrete Operational Stage
 Conservation:
 decentration
 reversibility
 Classification
 Seriation: transitive
inference
 Spatial reasoning:
cognitive maps
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Classification
 Children pass the class inclusion
problem between ages 7 and 10
 Collecting and classifying items
become common
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Seriation
 Ability to order items
along a quantitative
dimension—becomes
efficient around 6–7
years
 Transitive inference:
ability to seriate
mentally—appears
around 7 years
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Limitations of
Concrete Operational Thought
 Operations are concrete:
 applied to information children can
perceive directly
 work poorly with abstract ideas
 Continuum of acquisition: children
master concrete operational tasks
gradually, step by step
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Information-Processing View of
Concrete Operational Thought
 Neo-Piagetians: gains in informationprocessing speed, rather than shift to a
new stage


automatic schemas free working memory
central conceptual structures: networks of
concepts and relations that allow them to
think more effectively about a wide range of
situations.
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Key Gains in
Information Processing
 Working memory
 Flexible strategy
use
 Cognitive
self-regulation:
continually monitoring
progress toward a goal,
checking outcomes and
redirecting unsuccessful
efforts.
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Attention in
Middle Childhood
Attention becomes more
 selective
 adaptable
 planful
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Memory Strategies
Rehearsal (early grade school)
 repeating information to oneself
Organization (early grade school)
 grouping related items together
Elaboration (end of middle childhood)
 creating a relationship between pieces
of information not in the same category
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Attention-Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder
 Inattention
 Impulsivity
 Excessive motor activity
 Results in
 academic problems
 social problems
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Promoting
Cognitive Self-Regulation
 Point out important
features of tasks.
 Suggest effective
learning strategies.
 Emphasize monitoring
of progress.
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Information Processing
and Academic Learning
 Reading:
 phonological awareness, informationprocessing speed, and visual discrimination
contribute to reading skills
 blend whole-language and phonics
approaches
 Mathematics:
 learn facts and procedures through practice,
reasoning, experimenting with strategies
 blend drill and “number sense” approaches
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Intelligence Tests
Group Tests
Individual Tests
 Allow testing of large
 Require training and
groups
experience to administer
 Require little training
 Provide insights about
to administer
accuracy of score
 Useful for instructional  Identify highly intelligent
planning
children and children
with learning problems
 Identify students who
need individual testing
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
of Successful Intelligence
Figure 9.4
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Gardner’s Multiple
Intelligences
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


Linguistic
Logico-mathematical
Musical
Spatial
Bodily-kinesthetic
Naturalist
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Nature, Nurture, and IQ
 Adoption studies
confirm the influence
of both heredity and
environment.
 Ethnic differences are
largely environmental.
 A dramatic secular trend
(generational rise in IQ)
supports the role of
environment.
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Cultural Bias in Testing
 Cultural influences affect
test performance:
 communication styles
 test content
 stereotypes
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Communication Styles
Middle-SES
White Parents
 Knowledge-training
questions
 Hierarchical style
of communication
Low-SES
Minority Parents
 Analogy or storystarter questions
 no right answer
 fosters complex
verbal skills
 Collaborative style
of communication
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Learning Two Languages
 Bilingual development:
 learn both languages at the same time or
learn first language, then second
 sensitive period during childhood
 Bilingual education:
 language immersion
 English-only programs: risk of inadequate
proficiency in both languages
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Features of High-Quality
Elementary Education




Class size
Physical setting
Curriculum
Teacher–student
interactions
 Evaluations of progress
 Relationships with families
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Educational Philosophies
 Traditional vs. constructivist
 New philosophical directions: socialconstructivist
 teachers and children as partners
 many types of symbolic communication
 teaching adapted to zone of proximal
development
 cooperative learning
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Teacher–Student Interaction
 Teachers:
 caring, helpful, stimulating, emphasizing
high-level thinking—fosters achievement
 use of repetitive drill, bias in favor of
well-behaved students—impedes
achievement
 Self-fulfilling prophecies: have greater
impact on low-achieving students
 homogenous ability groups—a potent
source
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Teaching Children with
Learning Difficulties
 Children often placed in regular
classrooms:
 mild mental retardation
 learning disabilities: 5–10% of
school-age children
 Law requires “least restrictive”
environment: inclusive classrooms
 full inclusion
 resource rooms
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
International
Comparisons
in Academic
Achievement
Figure 9.7
(Adapted from Programme for International
Student Assessment, 2009.)
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Cultural Variations in Schools
 United States:
 less challenging teaching
 variable teacher training,
salaries
 Finland:
 nationally mandated
curricula, teaching
practices, assessments
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 Asia (Japan, Korea, Taiwan):
 nationally mandated curricula
 well-prepared, well-paid teachers
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