Inclusion Presentation ECUR 898 Final

Ryan Gareau and Tracy Huckell
ECUR 898.3
May 2013
Everyone belongs in our schools
“All individuals, regardless of their
differences, must be regarded as an
unusual gift, not a burden, to the
broader social structure. People must
see that differences do not have to be
fixed or cured. Instead, each
individual’s gifts must be discovered,
accepted and shaped.”
(BCASC, 2002, p. 3)
What is Inclusion?
Concept Attainment Activity
Examples and Non-Examples
of Inclusive Education
Inclusive Education is:
A human right - the Saskatchewan Human
Rights Code states that all students have the
right to be educated in a regular classroom in
their neighborhood school with the right
supports in place to succeed.
 A focus on ability rather than the disability – it
rejects the ‘defective’ student model
 Individualized instruction that is carefully
planned to attend to the specific needs of the
student without interfering with the feeling of
membership and belonging in the classroom
Inclusive Education is:
Classroom teachers accepting
responsibility as the primary educator for all
students in their classroom – not the EA’s
or SST’s student
 Needs based assessment where
programming is based on the skills and
supports required rather than a
label/diagnosis – eg ASD diagnosis
Inclusive Education:
Leads to better life outcomes for students
with disabilities
 Is intended to benefit all students, not just
those with exceptionalities or disabilities
 Is every child receiving an education in the
most enabling environment. It may not
mean physical inclusion in a regular
classroom all the time if there are other
environments better suited to a particular
learning goal or self-regulation
(physiotherapy, authentic life skills
experiences, sensory breaks)
Inclusive Schools:
Have the commitment and the capacity to
educate all children who live in the community.
 Justify the ‘exclusion’ not the ‘inclusion’ of
students – inclusion is the default/norm
 Identify that when a student requires pull out
from their regular classroom to teach specific
skills that requires a different environment, it
should be for as brief as possible with the goal
of reintegrating the student back into the
regular classroom as soon as possible
Inclusive Schools Use Student
First Language:
 Person with a
 Child with autism
 Student with an
intellectual or
cognitive disability
 The boy with cerebral
 The girl with the
hearing impairment
 The student with a
learning disability
 The child with a visual
 The disabled person
The autistic child
The mentally retarded
The crippled boy
The deaf girl
The learning disabled
The blind child
What’s Wrong with Traditional Special Education?
It fails to produce results – students who
experience segregated special education are not
prepared for fulfilling lives in their community
 Students with disabilities don’t develop the skills
needed to be part of their community and society
when they become adults – growing up with and
interacting with peers does this
 Typically developing students do not develop a
sense of empathy and acceptance for those with
disabilities when they are not educated together
with numerous opportunities to interact together
Diversity should be:
 Respected
 Planned for
 Honored
 Valued
Normal is just a setting on your dryer!
Benefits to those with disabilities:
Increased peer connections, social networking, and
Exposure to rich classroom curriculum and reflective
discussion with a variety of peers
Higher academic outcomes
Authentic problem solving and critical thinking
Engagement in a variety of circumstances and
Increased and authentic experiences to practice
social skills necessary for life
Increased community involvement and acceptance
Greater quality of life
Benefits to Typically Developing Peers:
Research shows that typically developing students do
better, both academically and socially, as a result of
inclusion based policies and teaching practices.
More effective instruction as teachers learn to differentiate
for their various learners with a student centered approach
Decreased stereotyping of disabilities and more acceptance
of each individual as someone with specific strengths and
Development of the ability to see the person before the
Development of appreciation for diversity in society through
authentic experiences, and adult guidance and role
Development of empathy through interaction with peers
who have disabilities in a variety of contexts
Inclusive Education Canada:
Bruce Uditsky, CEO, Alberta Association
of Community Living
Christy Waldner, Saskatchewan parent
Effective Inclusive Leaders:
Provide a welcoming, positive and supportive
climate for students and families regardless of
ability, background etc.
Model and promote inclusion by interacting with all
students and encouraging their participation in
school and extra-curricular activities
Educate their staff on what inclusion is and what it
is not
Work collaboratively at the school level to ensure
staff receive the training and support required to
make inclusion successful
Share their journey to encourage other
administrators and schools to rise to the challenge
of providing an inclusive environment for all
Inclusive Video:
Basketball Game – demonstrates why
all students need to be given every
opportunity to be included with peers
Fair is not Equal – Ensuring the
Right Supports are in Place
SK Ministry of
Tiers of
Support for
School and Classroom Climate
A place where everyone supports and is supported by
peers in the course of having his or her needs met
 Staff members and students feel welcome in all classrooms
and physical settings of the school
 Students with disabilities have the opportunity to interact
with other students in classrooms, hallways, lunchrooms,
gym, etc
 All students have the opportunity to participate in the full
range of the schools activities with support and services as
 Transitions are planned for and supported (Pre-K to K,
elementary to secondary, secondary to work/life) to ensure
what is working well will continue in the next environment,
and to proactively address challenges and supports
required for a successful transition
Attitudes & Skills Required of
Cooperation and collaboration
 Flexibility and adaptability
 A desire to continually improve and for
life long learning
 Empathy and a student centered focus
 Growth mindset
Growth versus Fixed Mindset
Growth – success comes from hard work,
teachers can override student profiles, teachers
need to set high goals while providing
appropriate levels of support, finding what
makes school work for a student, if the student
fails our system has failed in meeting their
 Fixed – success comes from being smart,
genetics and environment determine what a
student can do, some kids are smart and some
aren’t, teachers can’t override student profiles
What message do you give your students? What
about the teachers in your school?
Effects of Student Mindset
Growth – accept feedback more readily,
embrace challenge, grow more
academically, persist longer, work
 Fixed – get angry with feedback, resist
challenge, give up faster, reject hard
work as it hasn’t paid off in the past,
grow less academically
Key Message from Teachers for
Student Success
Your effort predicts your success
 If you work hard and smart, you will grow in the
required knowledge, understandings and skills.
 If you continue this pattern, there is no reason
you can’t achieve and even exceed goals
 The way we work in this class will help you see
the link between your effort and your success
 I believe in you and will work with you to support
your success
“It’s not how good you are, it’s how good you want
to be.” (Tomlinson, Personal Communication, 2013)
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
Schools are physically accessible for all individuals
(doorways, ramps, washrooms) and all areas can be
accessed safely and as independently as possible
 Students with disabilities are physically integrated in the
classroom seating arrangement – not placed at the back
of the classroom with an EA
 Classrooms are designed proactively to meet the
universal and diverse needs of all students:
 Furniture, equipment, and work stations are
accessible for students with physical, learning, and
sensory disabilities
 Alternate seating options are available – Zuma rocker,
bean bag chair, Hokki stool, standing frame etc.
 Clutter free classroom design supports ideal regulation
for learning – lighting, acoustics, visual schedules,
quiet space within the classroom, white noise options
Multi-Disciplinary Teams
Provide a continuum of supports
Increase learning outcomes for students
Work collaboratively toward common goals for students
through development and implementation of Inclusion and
Intervention Plans (IIPs)
Work under principles of trust, commitment, equality,
advocacy, communication, professional competence, and
Move beyond parental involvement to parent partnerships –
parent input is valued as part of the team
School Team Members – Classroom Teacher, Student Support
Teacher, Educational Assistant, Administrator
Division Team – Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP),
Occupational Therapist (OT), Psychologist, School Counsellor
Community Partners – Community Living, Parkland Early
Childhood Intervention Program (ECIP), Sunrise Children’s
Therapy Program, Mental Health, Social Services, Partners in
Employment, Cognitive Disability Strategy
Community and Parent Involvement
Parents have input in the planning and goal
setting process for their child
 Teachers recognize that students have
social, emotional, and academic needs to
 Students and parents are invited to share
their suggestions and recommendations in
order to create an inclusionary plan
 All students are supported and feel a sense
of belonging in their community
Inclusion and Differentiated Instruction
Teachers focus on strengths and capabilities of
all students
Teachers recognize the effort as well as the
ability of their students
High, reasonable expectations are set for all
students and maintained in the classroom
Instructional delivery methods in the classroom
use a variety of formats and rely on a variety of
senses (multi-sensory)
Teachers give students a sense of empowerment
over their own learning
Differentiated Instruction
Respectful engaging tasks that develop deep
understanding of essential concepts
 Flexible groupings – according to interest,
readiness, learning preferences
 Students work in teams that have
complementary skills and generate synergy
allowing members to go beyond their
limitations, and to help each other reach their
 Competition against self rather than one
Differentiating Instruction
Teaching up with appropriate
supports/scaffolding in place
 Must be solidly rooted in curriculum and
informed by ongoing formative assessment
 Teachers
adapt content to fit individual
needs by concentrating on pacing of
instruction, task analysis, and scaffolding
required for success
 Several avenues are provided for
students to accomplish the same goal
Differentiation is based on:
Readiness – student’s position relative to the
specific task at hand; not reflective of overall
ability, IQ, or potential
 Interests – ignite curiosity or passion, are
culturally or experientially relevant
 Learning Profile – encourages student to work
in a preferred manner (diagrams, stories,
skits, songs etc.)
Reading Disability Simulation
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qhey're viqal is cysqainly blain. Now qhink apouq qhe way
you woulq qhink if qhose calls wyse qhe calls in your prain.
Assistive Technology
Increases the functional capabilities of
students with disabilities
 Examples:
 Laptop/ipad with Word Q/iwordQ or speech to
text capabilities such as Dragon Naturally
 Proloquo 2 Go or Big Mac recorder for
augmentative communication
 Fidgets, weighted or pressure vests, alternate
seating for regulation – Hokki stool, Zuma rocker,
hand and mouth tools
 Wheelchairs, standing frames, bean bag chairs
Effective Utilization of EA Support
EA proximity – too close can be a barrier for peers
and teachers to get to know and work with the
student requiring support. This causes segregation
in the classroom, interference with peer
interactions, unnecessary dependence on adults, a
feeling of being stigmatized/labelled.
 Supports are most effective when they are natural
and do not set the student apart from the group
 EAs should not replace the teacher as the main
person in charge of the education of a child with
TEAM Orientation Resource for EAs and Classroom Teachers
Educational Assistants should:
Help peers understand how to relate to the
student with a disability and how to provide peer
support when appropriate
Help the child interact with others to make
Provide and reinforce social skills training – this
allows authentic skills practice in a variety of
Assist other students in the classroom so the EA
is viewed as a classroom support rather than a
certain student’s assistant
Supervise the rest of the class at times while the
teacher works with students who have more
intensive needs
Fostering Independence
Independence has a strong link to self-esteem
 EAs and teachers need to provide scaffolding
for students to develop skills to become as
independent as possible – never do for a
student what they can do for themselves
 Challenges must be at an appropriate level –
too difficult leads to frustration and too easy
leads to a lack of growth
 Gradual release of support – prompting from
hand over hand, to verbal, to visual, and then
fading supports for independence
Successful Inclusion
Depends on having the right attitude,
which begins with the belief that all
students with disabilities can learn, want
to learn, and have a right to be fully
included in their neighborhood schools.
 Is based on a school system that
supports and values all students
 The right attitude determines whether a
student is truly included or merely a
Inclusion is More Than 9 to 3 Video
Produced in
between the
University of
and the
Association for
Community Living
2005 – 15 minutes long
Don’t Laugh at Me – Mark Wills
Don’t Laugh At Me
Classroom Resources Link
The goal of Don’t Laugh at Me is to support you in creating a caring,
compassionate, and cooperative classroom and school environment. Since
young people learn by doing, this guide focuses on giving them the
experience of learning in a caring community—a classroom characterized
• a healthy expression of feelings
• caring, compassion, and cooperation
• the creative resolution of conflicts
• an appreciation of differences
Don’t Laugh at Me addresses issues of the heart—as well as the mind.
Through the song, CD, and video, the project harnesses the power of
music and art to transform, inspire, and build skills in students. The
activities in this guide are designed to raise awareness, explore feelings,
connect young people to their inner selves and one another, provide
important tools for you as a teacher, fulfill curriculum standards, and build
essential skills. Additionally, these activities will help you to empower your
students to become important catalysts for change in your school and
community—so that the circle of caring widens and an increasing number
of young people can share in the experience of a caring community.
SK Ministry of Education Resources to Support
Meaningful Programming & Inclusion:
Teachers Make the Difference: Teaching Students with
Learning Disabilities at Middle and Secondary Levels – Living
Document 2009
Planning for Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Teaching Students with Autism
Teaching Students with Reading Difficulties and Disabilities
Teaching Students with Visual Impairments
Creating Opportunities for Students with Intellectual or Multiple
Caring and Respectful Schools: Toward School PLUS
Alternative Education Programs: Policy, Guidelines and
Functional Integrated Programs: Policy Guidelines and
Presentation References:
British Columbia Association for Community Living. (2002).
Making the case for inclusive education in BC: Everyone
belongs in our schools. New Westminster, BC: BCACL
Causton-Theoharis, J.N. (2009). The golden rule of providing
support in inclusive classrooms: Support others as you
would wish to be supported. Teaching Exceptional Children,
42(2), 36-43.
Dieker, L. (2007). Demystifying secondary inclusion:
Powerful school-wide & classroom strategies. Port Chester,
NY: Dude Publishing.
Porter, G. L. (2008). Making Canadian schools inclusive: A
call to action. Education Canada, 58(2), 62-66.
Presentation References:
Saskatchewan Association for Community Living. (2010).
Navigating the system: An advocacy handbook for parents of
children with intellectual disabilities. Saskatoon, SK: SACL
Saskatchewan Educational Leadership Unit. (2012). Module
one: Multi-disciplinary teams. Saskatoon, SK: SELU
Saskatchewan Learning. (2001). Creating opportunities for
students with intellectual or multiple disabilities. Regina, SK:
Province of Saskatchewan.
Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. (2010). Impact
assessment: Identification of students requiring intensive
supports. Regina, SK: Province of Saskatchewan.
Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. (2006). Inclusive
education: A review of the research. Regina, SK: Province of
Presentation References:
Shanker, S. (2013). Calm, alert, and learning. Toronto,
ON: Pearson Canada.
Smith, T.E., Polloway, E.A., Patton, J.R., Dowdy, C.A.,
McIntyre, L.J., Francis, G.C. (2009). Teaching students
with special needs in inclusive settings. Toronto, ON:
Pearson Canada.
Specht, J. (2013). School inclusion: Are we getting it
right? Education Canada, 53(2),
Tomlinson, C. (1999). The differentiated classroom:
Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria,
Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating
differentiated instruction and understanding by design.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.