Investigating the effect of out of school activities on educational

Investigating the effect of out of
school activities on educational
Exploring theories of causality
What links are there between out of
school activities and educational
What do we mean by out of school
“Learning activity outside normal
school hours that children take part in
• Music lessons
• Sports clubs
• After school clubs
• Scouts/Guides etc
Participation in
Out of School
We are suggesting that children who take part in out of
school activities do better educationally, and want to
explore the processes underlying this link
We will analyse data to find
• How children spend their time out of school range and types
• Change and continuity during primary school
• Patterns of activity participation for children
from different backgrounds (incl parent
employment, SEG)
• Associations between different activities and
educational attainment at 11
We will then
• Interview parents
• Interview out of school activity providers
• Interview children
• We’d like you your help to
explore reasons for links
Theories of underlying processes
• From our review of the literature we have drawn out possible
theories of causation
• We want to test which theory is most likely to underpin this
• There are a wide range so we have grouped the theories by
– Child-focussed
– Social focussed
– Activity focussed
• These are presented on the following slides
• We welcome your opinions on them
Selection effects
• More engaged families send children to out of
school activities. Also more engaged in
academic achievement
• Higher SEG parents can afford out of school
activities. Higher SEG children achieve better
at school
Child focussed
Identification/Commitment Model
(Marsh & Kleitman; Valentine et al; Cummings et al)
Activities take place in school
Pupil enjoys activities
Increased engagement with school
Pupil identifies with school more. Staff have better impression of pupils, reflected in school
Socio-cultural Model
(Vygotsky; Bruner)
Capabilities are nurtured in a less formal setting
Transferred to formal learning
Self belief model
(Valentine, 2002)
Attainment in non-educatiom setting
Increased confidence
Goal theory
Activities encourage desire to demonstrate skills and ability
Social focussed
Social Capital theory
Activities increase social resources
Social cognitive learning
Exposure to admired peers
Allows observation and imitation of traits
Risk & Resilience theory
(Camsey; Ungar; Martin & Marsh; Garmezy)
Exposure to risk and resilience
Develops protective factors (confidence, control, commitment)
Adult Supporters
(Eccles et al)
Attachment to non-familial adults
See instructors in a supportive role
Activity focussed
Academic Model
(Fredricks & Eccles; Sylva et al)
Increase in skills, learning and participation
Capability Approach
Success is experienced in non-academic domain
Boosts self-belief and confidence
Breadth of participation
(Valentine et al; Buoye)
Activities have educational content
Increased learning
Normalises learning with peers
Competitive element
Increases desire to succeed
Any others?
Happy children who have fun are more receptive to learning and achieving?
Children who succeed at school are more likely to take place in out of school activities?
Parents who send their children to out of school activities are those who engage more with their
children’s lives / place more emphasis on success?
Keep in touch
• We’ll be releasing our findings throughout the
• Let us know your thoughts or get added to our
mailing list
[email protected]
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