ERASE overview March 2013 - PBISIowa

A Brief FBA/BIP Process
Lorie Spanjers
Prairie Lakes Area Education Agency
Fort Dodge, Iowa
Kim Bodholdt, Counselor
Susan Winter, Classroom Teacher
Feelhaver Elementary
Fort Dodge, Iowa
Based on a Presentation Created By:
Rose Iovannone, Ph.D., BCBA-D
University of South Florida
Florida PBS Project
A Brief FBA/BIP Process
Developed by:
Terrance M. Scott, Ph.D.
Carl J. Liaupsin, Ed.D.
C. Michael Nelson, Ed.D.
Liaupsin, C. J., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2006).
Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention
Planning: A Simplified Team Process: Facilitator’s Guide
CD-ROM. Longmont, CO: Sopris West
Goals of today:
Participants will:
◦ Describe steps of a brief functional behavior
assessment process, ERASE
◦ Learn about one school’s application of the
ERASE process
◦ Discuss how they can use ERASE in their
Presentation materials will be posted at:
Remember, the triangle is a
continuum, not a place.
The Issue – Two Approaches
The child IS the problem so fix him/her
◦ Punish the child to teach a lesson
◦ We hope the problem will go away…Does it?
◦ Who benefits the most from this approach?
The child HAS a problem so fix it
◦ Change the environment
◦ Teach new skills
◦ Problem less likely to occur
A box to think outside of:
There are many other boxes to explore
Problem Behavior (Scott, 2006)
Explain - What is the problem?
Reason - What is he/she getting out of it or
Appropriate - What do you want him/her to do
Support - How can you help this happen more
Evaluate - How will you know if it works?
Less intensive FBA
 Meeting typically takes one hour
 Systematic small team process
 Intended for students with mild behavior
problems (e.g., high frequency, low
 Not appropriate for students with
intensive or multiple behavior problems
Referred by teacher for recurrent
behavior problems
There have been some minor
problems with Eric for quite some
time. After using the typical
classroom management strategies
(including moving desk, removing
from recess), Ms. Smith has not
seen any change in behavior and
has decided that she needs help.
That’s why she initiated
this request for assistance.
Ms. Smith Eric’s fourth grade classroom teacher
Team-Based Planning
Effective Teaming
Range of persons with vested interest
Knowledge of student
Perspectives and experiences shared
Collaborative brainstorming and plans
Focus on student
Representation of Three Levels of
1. Student
2. Behavioral Principles
3. Context
Team Members
PE Teacher
What are the Team’s Tasks?
Team Tasks
◦ Assess
 Define problem, identify predictable patterns, and
determine function
◦ Intervene
 Instruction, environmental arrangements, and
◦ Evaluate
 Monitor, measure, and create criteria for success
Explain - What is the problem?
◦ Definition of Behavior and Context
◦ Observable
 See it, hear it, feel it, smell it, taste it?
 Measurable
 How many, how long, how intense?
◦ Recognizable
 We all agree when it happens
Define Problems and Context
Eric (Observation #1)
Eric (Observation #2)
Eric (Observation #3)
Describe Context
Assess behavior in relationship to
environmental contexts (antecedents and
 Tool for intervention planning
Problem Analysis
Team Identifies
Teacher moving about
Teacher working at
Independent reading
time in the library
Yawning, hitting pencil
against paper
Teacher attends to Eric and helps
him with task
Pounding on desk
Teacher attends to Eric and then
grants request
Yells across the library
Library teacher attends to Eric
and answers question
What happens immediately before and after instances of positive behavior?
Positive Antecedents
Positive Behaviors
Positive Consequences
Class discussion with
Raises hand before
Teacher and student attention and
directions to raise hand
Cooperative group work
in library
Uses appropriate tone of
voice and refrains from
noise making
Student attention and work
Place information from reports and observations in the columns below
What happens immediately before and after the problem behavior?
Problem Antecedents
Problem Behavior
Problem Consequences
Teacher working with
Teacher attends to Eric and then
answers question
Problem Analysis
When are you likely to see the problem behavior and what are the likely consequences?
General Antecedents
Problem Behaviors
General Consequences
Independent work
time & no direct
teacher attention
Disruptive noises
Disruptive noises
(humming, tapping
pencil, pounding on
desk, yelling)
Teacher attention
questions, granting
requests, etc.)
Reason - What is he/she
getting out of it or avoiding?
Based on brief functional behavioral
 Several observations, perspectives
 Identifies predictable relationships between
environmental variables and behavior
When (some antecedent condition occurs)
student will (engage in a specific behavior)
because (a predictable outcome will occur)
therefore the function of the behavior is to get or
get out of (something in the environment)
Analyze Patterns
& Identify Function
Create a Valid Statement of
Function of Behavior
Does the problem behavior allow the student to access and/or avoid attention, tasks, items, or
sensory stimulation? (Ex: When in math class, Bart engages in disruptive behavior to gain
teacher attention)
During independent work times in the classroom and when
the teacher is not attending directly to Eric, he engages in
noisemaking to access the teacher’s attention to meet his
Let’s Review
The ERASE Process
 Assessment
◦ Develop a collaborative team of persons
familiar with the student
◦ Identify the problem
◦ Analyze the problem and how it is
related to environmental events
◦ Determine the function of behavior
Intervention - (next)
Appropriate - What do you want
him/her to do instead?
Replacement behaviors are what we want the
student to do instead of the problem
Effective replacement behavior must:
1. Be incompatible with the problem.
2. Serve the same function as the problem.
Effective, Efficient, Relevant
Replacement behaviors will only catch on with the
student when they work better than the problem
behavior in terms of:
Must look like what others in the environment do under
similar circumstances - must be appropriate for student.
Must serve the same function (obtain the same
outcome) as the problem behavior - if it doesn’t work,
the student won’t do it.
Must work at least as quickly and easily as the problem
behavior - if it works but is harder to perform, the
student won’t do it.
Replacement Behaviors
Running in the hall
Refusing to answer in
front of peers
Running out of the room
when the bell rings –
running home
Screaming in class and
going to the hallway
when work is hard
Access to new location
Avoid embarrassment
Access to freedom
Escape being exposed to
work that student can’t do
Replacement Behavior
Walking in the hall
Answering correctly
when asked
Sitting down and waiting
for teacher to dismiss
Asking for help
Develop replacement behaviors for
each of these problems:
 Think: relevant, effective, efficient
Replacement Behavior
Planning Instruction
Replacement behaviors must be taught.
Planning for instruction requires thought
 What is the behavior?
◦ Can the student perform the behavior?
◦ What examples will help to teach this?
When should the behavior occur?
◦ Where should the behavior occur?
Why should the behavior occur (what
will happen)?
Assessment & Intervention
Record—Design Instruction
Design Instruction
Can the student perform this behavior? Under what conditions will this behavior be
successful and unsuccessful? What teaching examples will help make this clear to the
student?(Ex: behavior will work when getting attention from teachers but not peers;
examples of different ways to get teacher attention.)
• Eric can physically raise his hand – he’s done it before
• This will only work in the classroom – not on playground or in PE
• Examples: when he wants help, has questions, needs something in the
 Teach Eric (with no students present) by having him role play when to
raise his hand, how to raise his hand, and how he should wait for
teacher acknowledgement
 Provide examples and nonexamples of hand-raising behavior and make
sure he can discriminate between the two.
Support - How can you help this
happen more often?
What conditions make it likely that Eric will
be unsuccessful in using the replacement
Hint: Think about consequences for
replacement and problem behavior - are
they teaching what we want to teach?
What could be done in the environment to
make this failure less likely?
Preventing Failure
Predicting and Preventing Failure
Predicting and Preventing Failure
What are some circumstances or conditions that might tend to predict failure and what can be
done to prevent or remove those conditions?
Predictable Failure
What would make this intervention fail?
If he raises his hand and but doesn’t
get attention
Temporary Solution
How can we prevent this failure?
Be vigilant – continually scan the room
and try to respond to Eric as soon as
possible after he raises his hand
If he makes noises and gets attention
Do not allow him to get his needs met
by making noises. Provide attention
only when he raises his hand.
Facilitating Success
How can we set Eric up for success?
◦ What conditions will make it more likely that Eric
will be successful in using his replacement
◦ What could be done in the environment to make
success more likely?
◦ Hint—think about the antecedents to replacement
behavior. Does the teacher have the strategies in
place to remind and prompt Eric?
Facilitate Success
Team Meeting Record
Facilitating Success
What are some strategies that will make the replacement behavior more likely? (Ex: manipulate
instructional or organizational routines and schedules, change physical location of objects or
persons, use prompts/cues/pre-corrects, prompts, changing routines, etc.)
• Move independent work time after lunch when Eric is less active
• Give reminder of raising hand behavior before quiet work times
• Give verbal prompts to entire class: “I’m helping people who are raising their
hands” or “I’m going to help people who raise their hand first.”
• Give physical prompt to Eric – show him a raised hand
Consequences – Using Replacement
◦ After positive behavior - increase future
◦ Approximate and/or pair with natural
 Why does behavior occur in the environment?
◦ Make part of routine and systems
 Be consistent
◦ Pre-plan and teach consequences
 Teach the student what to expect
Reinforcing Eric
What is the natural consequence for
Eric’s replacement behavior?
Is that consequence under teacher
How can we use that as a reinforcer
for Eric?
Is there need for anything artificial?
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Consequences for
Replacement Behavior
Positive Consequences for Replacement Behavior
How can natural positive consequences be What enhancements can be made to
made available to the student when
increase the power of natural positive
desired behavior occurs?
Natural Positive Consequence
Provide teacher attention
Artificial Positive Consequence
• Provide attention more quickly than
would normally be the case in the
classroom (classroom ticket system
is in place and may be used if
natural reinforcer is insufficient)
Consequences-Problem Behavior
Responses that follow problem behavior
Goal: Decrease problem behavior
Five Rules
1. Use the least amount necessary
2. Pre-plan, teach, be consistent
3. Use only when supports are in place to
reinforce replacement behavior
4. Defeat function of problem behavior
5. Examine plan if consequences are not working
What consequences can be used if Eric
forgets to raise his hand?
 How should the teacher respond or what
should she do so that she is no longer
reinforcing problem behavior?
◦ Hint: Think about the function of Eric’s
behavior and how the teacher usually
Negative Consequences for
Problem Behavior
Negative Consequences for Problem Behavior
What can be done when the student displays the problem behavior so that the desired
function cannot be realized?
 Initially attempt ignoring noises
 If noises continue, provide Eric a prompt (either visual or verbal) to remind
him to raise his hand
 Consider response cost after Eric is earning tickets and raising his hand
relatively consistently. Preplan and provide menu to Eric that shows
forgetting to raise his hand while engaging in noises will cost him 1 ticket.
 When using response cost, provide incentive that will motivate Eric to begin
to raise his hand again, e.g., if he is able to raise his hand after response
cost, he has the opportunity of getting a bonus ticket.
Evaluate - How will you know if
it works?
What do we want and how will we know
if it works?
◦ Measure behavior change
◦ Target criteria for successful performance
Monitoring and Objectives
Identify Target/Objective of
Behavioral Objective
What are the conditions under which behavior will be measured and the criteria for success?
(Ex: when in the classroom, Bart will raise his hand and wait quietly for teacher attention
during 80% of opportunities.)
When is the behavior likely to What do you want the student How much is enough? (Use
to do?
the measure from above)
During independent Eric will raise his
work times in the
hand and wait
classroom or library quietly for teacher
During 80% of
opportunities by
the end of the
How will behavior change be measured? (Ex: when the student is asked to complete a
task a tally will be made as a measure of task completion.)
 Monitor Eric during independent work time and class discussion.
 Develop a rating scale that allows the teacher to rate Eric’s hand
raising behavior each day. Frequencies can be used for
perceptions from 1-5
 At the end of the day, the teacher should circle the rating that
best describes Eric’s hand-raising behavior.
 Rate the behavior each day and evaluate whether behavior is
Keep it!
◦ Identify additional
◦ Raise the bar
◦ Fade prompts
◦ Celebrate!
Stop and Problemsolve
◦ Review function
◦ Re-teach behavior
◦ Add prompts or cues
◦ Identify prerequisites
◦ Make changes to plan
◦ Consider more
intensive process
We have covered the following topics:
◦ Completing a functional assessment
◦ Determining the function of behavior
◦ Determining a functional replacement
◦ Making instructional decisions
◦ Creating effective instructional environments
◦ Responding to desired and undesired
◦ Measuring progress
ERASE – A Case Example
Feelhaver Elementary, Fort Dodge
Kim Bodholdt, Counselor
Susan Winter, Classroom Teacher
Case Example
Student: Liz
Team Members:
Classroom teacher
Special education teacher
School counselor
Assistant principal
Initial Behavior of Concern:
Inappropriate noise making
Excessive movement at inappropriate times
Invasion of personal space
Doing the opposite of what the teacher asks or
classroom rules
Case Example - ABC
Antecedents – most likely
◦ When Liz is being ignored or not receiving
◦ When other students are given positive
Antecedents – least likely
◦ One-on-one adult attention
◦ When being redirected
◦ Access to attention from peers and adults
Function of Behavior:
◦ Gain teacher and/or peer attention
Case Example – Predictable Explanation
of Behavior
Liz not receiving
direct attention
or peers being
highlighted for
Liz does the Receives
opposite of negative adult
what is
Case Example
Hypothesis Statement:
◦ When Liz is not the center of attention, she
engages in disruptive behavior to gain teacher
and/or peer attention
Case Example
Replacement Behavior:
◦ Liz will raise her hand when she wishes to
◦ Liz will follow directions the first time given.
◦ Teacher will teach replacement behavior to
entire class.
◦ All teachers will use the strategy.
Case Example
 Support:
◦ Liz will have a clip board with a bucket filler bucket
coloring sheet with 15 hearts. Each time she
exhibits the replacement behavior, she can fill in a
◦ Liz will watch a video clip of expected behaviors
(sitting, raising her hand)
◦ Liz will have built in positive attention as follows:
 10 minutes in the morning with the foster grandma
 5 minutes in the middle of the day with Julie H. (reading
 30 minute rest time in the library with Ms. Moser (library
 10 minutes at the end of the day with Merita(reading para).
During that time, Liz will share her bucket filler sheet and
what she did to fill in the hearts.
Case Example
Positive Consequences:
◦ Natural: positive attention from adults
◦ Artificial: fill bucket, positive attention from 4
different adults built into daily schedule
Negative Consequences:
◦ Neutral voice tone
◦ State replacement behavior to whole class
Case Example
◦ Use of replacement behavior measured by
number of hearts colored on bucket filler sheet
◦ Problem behavior tracked by a clicker
Behavioral Objective:
◦ Within the school setting, Liz will raise her hand
and follow classroom rules and expectations, as
measured by 15 circles filled in each day.
Case Example – Follow Up
Data Review
◦ Liz is averaging 7.8 negative marks per day.
Behavior of Concern: Aggression
◦ Liz’s behaviors have increased in intensity,
most specifically physical and verbal
aggression (eating erasers, blocking classmates
in the closet).
◦ This trend in data indicates that Liz is not
filling her need for attention (peer attention)
through previous behaviors.
Case Example
Parent Concerns
◦ Mom is uncomfortable sharing negative
information with Liz about her school day.
◦ Team felt it was necessary to communicate
the physical aggression with mom.
◦ An in-home counselor is working with Liz’s
mom on parenting skills.
Case Example
Intervention Decision
◦ Utilize Liz’s in-home counselor to
communicate about behavior
◦ Mrs. B. will contact the counselor and share
the most recent behavioral data and any
changes we are making to Liz’s intervention.
◦ Referrals will be written for the physical
aggression and verbal aggression incidents.
◦ Information about these referrals will be
communicated home through the office,
rather than the classroom teacher.
Case Example
Other Intervention Changes
 Mrs. B. and Mrs. W. will adapt Liz’s current
bucket filler sheet so that her new goal is
8 hearts a day.
 Structure a time each day that Liz can
take a friend and work with Mrs. M. to
help fill her peer bucket.
 The intervention with Julie H. is going well
and will be continued.
Case Example
During remainder of Kindergarten year:
◦ Artificial reinforcement was faded by
increasing number of hearts needed to earn
◦ Slowly reduced amount of adult attention
◦ By end of year, no supports needed
Liz currently in 1st grade
◦ No additional supports being provided
Liaupsin, C. J., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M.
(2006). Functional Behavioral Assessment
and Intervention Planning: A Simplified
Team Process: Facilitator’s Guide CDROM. Longmont, CO: Sopris West