Intro to Tour 8

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Slide 8.1
Chapter 8
Sustainable Tourism
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
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Slide 8.2
Learning Objectives
• To gain an understanding of the concept of
sustainability and the difficulties associated
with trying to derive a definition
• To provide an appreciation of how the
sustainability issue pervades(pass through)
all aspects of the tourism process and applies
to all stakeholders
• To recognise the different ways that tourism
can pursue sustainability objectives and the
limitations likely to be experienced.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.3
Learning Objectives (cont’d)
• To understand the concept of carrying capacity and
the difficulties involved in applying that concept in
the real world.
• To gain an insight(comprehend) into alternative
forms of tourism, including eco-tourism products
and how they attempt to improve the sustainability
of tourism and what their limitations may be.
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Slide 8.4
Basic Principles of Sustainability
• Take an holistic (functional relationship)
approach to planning and strategy
• Protect the environment (biodiversity) and man
made heritage
• Preserve the essential ecological processes
• Facilitate and engage public participation
• Ensure that productivity can be sustained into
the long term future
• Provide for a better level of fairness(openness)
and opportunity between different countries
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Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.5
Definition of Sustainability
• Meeting the needs of the present
generation without compromising
(agreeing) the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs
• There are hundreds of definitions about
sustainability – but none fully acceptable,
all have some ambiguities and/or conflicts
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.6
Sustainability of capital stock?
• Human – the population, welfare, health, work
force, educational and skill base
• Physical – productive capital such as
machinery, equipment, buildings
• Environmental – man made and natural
resources, bio-diversity
• Socio-cultural – well being, social cohesion
(harmony), empowerment, equity, cultural
heritage
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.7
Sustainability – a stock approach
Figure 8.1 Sustainability and capital stocks
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.8
Sustainability of Tourism
• Economic aspects working against sustainable
tourism e.g. inflation, resource allocation etc.
• Environmental aspects working against
sustainable tourism e.g. environmental impacts
of tourism on biodiversity, ecology etc.
• Socio-cultural aspects working against
sustainable tourism impacts of guests on hosts
and hosts on other hosts
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Sustainability of Carrying capacity
• The fact that tourism activity has an impact
on the social, cultural, environmental and
economic aspects of a destination brings with
it certain implications.
• If it assumed that these impacts are positively
correlated with the volume of tourist arrivals,
it may be realistic to assume that there are
certain thresholds beyond which additional
tourists will not be tolerated or accepted.
• Exceeding these thresholds is likely to
affect every facet of tourism development.
Slide 8.9
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.10
Thresholds and carrying capacity
• physical thresholds(steps) limit the volume of tourist
flows
• environmental thresholds also limit the tourist flows by
creating secondary problems, such as health hazards, or
detract(lessen) from the attractiveness of a destination
• social and cultural thresholds generate
resentment(angry) and antagonism towards tourists
from the host population
• tourist flow thresholds affect satisfaction levels and
cause tourists to search elsewhere for a better product
• economic thresholds result in misallocation of
resources and factors of production.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.11
Definition
• Carrying capacity is defined as “the maximum
number of visitors who can use a site without
an unacceptable alteration in the physical
environment and without an unacceptable
decline in the quality of experience gained by
visitors.
• There are number of factors to take into
account when attemping to identify the level of
carry capacity.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.12
•
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•
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Factors identify carrying capacity
Average length of stay
Characteristics of tourists and hosts
Geographical concentration of tourists
Degree of seasonality
Accessibility of specific sites
Level of infrastructure and its spare capacity
The extent of spare capacity among various
productive sectors of the economy
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.13
The dynamics of carrying capacity
• Guest–Host differences – Socio culturalal
tolerance levels change over time with gradual
exposure to tourists.
• Speed of change of tourism – people become
accustomed to changes.it does not make the change
any less but it does make it more acceptible.
• Limits of acceptable change (LAC) – Unplanned
rapid development could easily result in low
tolerance level s and carryin capacities of much
lower values.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.14
The factors of determining carrying capacity
Local factors
• There are many local factors that will influence
the magnitude and direction of impacts but
what is important ,besides the nature of the local
factors, is the relative difference between the
local factors and the tourist counterparts and the
speed of change.
• Looking at individual factors we can see how
complex the issues are.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.15
Social structure
• The social structure of the destination is vital in
determining the scale and nature of any impacts.
For example, taking two extreme views, the
social structure of London, New York and Sydney
are more able to absorb and tolerate the
presence of tourists than cities such as Apia in
Western Samoa or Port Louis in Mauritius.
• The former can tolerate the presence of tourists
without incurring any significant changes to their
social structures because those changes have
already occurred.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.16
Cultural heritage
• The cultural heritage of a destination is very
important when attempting to determine the
impact and carrying capacity.
• The more unusual the cultural background, the
more attractive a destination may become to
potential tourists.
• Ironically, the more unusual the cultural
background, the more likely it is to be adversely
affected by the presence of tourists.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.17
Environment
• The environment will be changed by the
presence of tourists no matter how
sympathetic they may be or how careful the
tourism activity is planned.
• The environment can be either artificial or
natural. In general the former is more resilient
to tourism impacts than the latter.
• Environmental change is inevitable and will be
more obvious and pronounced in those areas
that are sparsely populated and not subject to
frequent high-volume tourist visits.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.18
Economic structure
• The economic structure will determine the
benefits and costs associated with tourism
activity.
• In general , the more developed and
industrialized the economy, the more
robust and adaptable it will be.
• As economies grow and diversify, so too
do the skills of the workforce.
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Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.19
Tourism development, particularly rapid
development, tends to be resort-based and this
may bring with it the economic problems
associated with:
• Migration from rural to urban areas; and
• The transfer of labour from traditional
industries to tourism and its related industries.
Economies have to be mature to be able to
adjust to these pressures.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.20
Political structure
• The political structure can affect the impacts of
tourism and its carrying capacity in a number of
ways. To begin with, political instability will
deter tourists and therefore hinder tourism
development. Some group of tourists are more
sensitive to political instability than others but
few tourists are unaffected by the prospect of
political instability.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Resources
• The availability of local resources (labour,
capital, land etc.)is likely to have a major
influence on the acceptability and desirability
of tourism development and, even on the form
that development takes.
• Where resources are scarce, competition for
them will be high and the opportunity cost of
using these resources for tourism will also be
high.
• The local infrastructure is also part of the
resource base.
Slide 8.21
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.22
Alien factors
Tourist characteristics
• Clearly, the characteristics of the tourists who
visit any given destination are an important
factor in determining the social and cultural
impact of tourism on the host community. For
instance, tourists who belong to the mass or
charter groups are more likely to have a greater
social and cultural impact than those who belong
to the explorer, adventurers and ethnic tourist
categories.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.23
• Carrying capacity is centered around tolerance
levels;
• How tolerant the ecological system is to tourist
intrusion and activity, as well as those activities
created as a result of tourism activity.
• How tolerant the social-cultural structure is to
the introduction of foreign cultures, ideal and
beliefs.
• How much tolerance there is within the
economic structure.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.24
Types of tourist activity
• The types of tourist activity pursued will be
closely linked to the characteristics of the
tourists who take part in them.
• However, the presence of certain activities,
such as gambling, can bring specific social
problems and stresses that are far greater in
magnitude than those associated with the
same number of tourists undertaking
different activities.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.25
Planning management and technology
• Planning is concerned with the organization of
factors in order to manipulate future events.
• The management of tourism is the process by
which plans are put into practice.
• Changes in the technology will have direct and
indirect effects on the difficulties associated
with the planning and management tasks.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.26
Impacts
• The local and alien factors, manipulated by
planning and the management of tourism
development, will result in impacts on the social
structure, culture, environment and economy,
and upon other tourists. Impacts are the
yardsticks of carrying capacity, but they are
derived variables. The task to the planner and
tourism management specialists is to ensure that
the appropriate impacts occur.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.27
Parameters
• The impacts that occur reflect the nature and
magnitude of change brought about by the
interaction between tourists and hosts, given
the management and planning that has been
implemented.
• The parameters can be identified as the
changes that take place to the local and alien
factors as a result of different levels and types
of interaction.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.28
Standards
• The standards may be seen as acceptable limits
applied to the parameters. They refer to the
value judgments imposed b the host and tourist
populations with respect to how much a
variable may change without incurring
irreversible or undesirable damage to the nature
of tourism and the environment in which it takes
place.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.29
Carrying capacity
• Carrying capacity is the dependent
variable. It is not possible to overemphasis the word variable because it is
not a fixed value based on tourist presence.
• The dynamic nature of carrying capacity
is based upon the chancing tolerance
levels of each of the determining factors
as a result of both exposure and
management.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Factors that need to
be included when estimating carrying capacity
Slide 8.30
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Average length of stay.
Characteristics of the tourists and hosts.
Geographical concentration of tourists.
Degree of seasonality.
Types of tourism activity.
Accessibility of specific sites.
Levels of infrastructure use and its
spare(empty/vacant) capacity.
• The extent of spare capacity amongst the various
productive sectors of the economy.
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.31
Figure 8.2 The determinants and influences of carrying capacity
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Relationships between
tourists, destinations and tolerance
levels
Slide 8.32
Figure 8.3 The relationship between tourists, destinations and tolerance levels
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.33
Measurement criteria
(Economic)
Table 8.1 Variables and thresholds
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.34
Measurement criteria
(Environmental)
Table 8.1 Variables and thresholds (cont’d)
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.35
Measurement criteria
(Physical)
Table 8.1 Variables and thresholds (cont’d)
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.36
Measurement criteria
(Political)
Table 8.1 Variables and thresholds (cont’d)
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.37
Measurement criteria
(Socio-cultural)
Table 8.1 Variables and thresholds (cont’d)
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.38
Sustainable Tourism Products
• Ecotourism and Alternative Tourism– are
linked to natural tourism attractions rather than
man-made attractions and environmental
sustainability is often found to to be a core
component of a product definition.
• But there are some questions and discussions
whether they are really a solution to the quest
for sustainability and their dangers?
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.39
The 10 R’s of Sustainability
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Recognize
Refuse
Replace
Reduce
Re-use
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
•
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Recycle
Re-engineer
Re-train
Reward
Re-educate
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Slide 8.40
Sustainability as a strategy
• Sustainability more than anything else
involves a process of recognition and
responsibility
• Recognition that the resources which are used
to produce the tourism products are
expendable and vulnerable(sensitive)
• Responsibility for the wise use of these
resources rests across all stakeholders
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.41
Conclusion
• Sustainability is a difficult concept which is
hard to define
• In pursuit(follow) of sustainability, there will
come a time where there is need to limit
development to some pre-determined threshold
• Carrying capacity can only be examined in a
case-by-case situation because it is sensitive to
local circumstances
• Carrying capacity is a dynamic rather than
static concept
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
Slide 8.42
Conclusion (cont’d)
• There is a need to modify the behaviour
of the stakeholders in tourism
• Ecotourism is not a solution to
sustainability
• There is a need for corporate
responsibility by the private sector
combined with a fully engaged public
participation in the planning of tourism
Cooper et al: Tourism: Principles and Practice, 3e
Pearson Education Limited 2005, © retained by authors
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