IUCN SSG Red List Workshop Threats and Conservation Actions

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IUCN SSG Red List Workshop

Threats and Conservation Actions

How do I make the correct selection?

Classification Schemes

IUCN has developed standard terms for documenting:

Threats

Conservation actions

Uniform classification

Allows for comparisons between taxonomic groups

Still being developed and tested

Your feedback is important

Threat/Conservation Action

1. Main Category

1.1 Sub category

Definition

Definition

2. Main Category

2.3 Sub category

2.3.2 Sub-sub Category

Definition

Definition

Threats: what to keep in mind

Two tasks

Write narrative describing threats

Past, ongoing or future (3 generations or 10 years)

Not to exceed 100 years in the future

Be very specific in the text, assume reader has no idea what happens in the region (they probably won’t!)

Cause of threat (driver)

Threat itself

Scale of threat – global population affected or only small part of population

Stress that threat places on taxon – habitat degradation or conversion, direct mortality, species disturbance…

Use keywords associated with threats

Select specific threats

Be selective – don’t choose everything (even though it may be tempting!)

Threats: the classification

1. Residential & commercial development

2. Agriculture & aquaculture

3. Energy production & mining

4. Transportation & service corridors

5. Biological resource use

6. Human intrusions & disturbance

7. Natural system modifications

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes

9. Pollution

10. Geological events

11. Climate change & severe weather

Threats: the classification

1. Residential & commercial development

2. Agriculture & aquaculture

3. Energy production & mining

4. Transportation & service corridors

5. Biological resource use

6. Human intrusions & disturbance

Most relevant

7. Natural system modifications

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes

9. Pollution

10. Geological events

11. Climate change & severe weather

Threats

1. Residential & Commercial Development

1.1 Housing & Urban areas

Land reclamation

Expanding human population that causes habitat degradation

2. Agriculture & Aquaculture

2.4 Marine & Freshwater Aquaculture

2.4.1 Subsistence/artisanal aquaculture

2.4.2 Industrial aquaculture

Mangrove destruction for shrimp farming specifically (two scales)

Threats

5. Biological Resource Use

5.4 Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources

5.4.1 Intentional mortality (human use - subsistence/small scale)

small scale/subsistence intentional fishery

Aquarium trade

Classification not based on the impact of the fishery

5.4.2 Intentional mortality (human use - large scale)

large scale/commercial intentional

Size of the fishery, not the impact

Threats

5. Biological Resource Use (cont.)

5.4.3 Incidental or accidental mortality - BYCATCH

small scale/subsistence unintentional fishery

small scale cyanide/dynamite fishing

(stress = ecosystem degradation)

5.4.4 Incidental or accidental mortality – BYCATCH

large scale/commercial unintentional fishery large scale cyanide/dynamite fishing

(stress of ecosystem degradation)

5.4.5 Persecution/Control

shark nets

Threats:

Note on Biological Resource Use

Intentional fisheries

Targeted

Family (e.g. Rhincobatidae, angel sharks) or species level

NOT “elasmobranch…” or “skate fishery”

Does the fishery go out to specifically target a species, or does it adjust its fishing tactics to catch the species? If so, when?

Unintentional fishery

All other fishing whether discarded or not

Not just bycatch

Threats

6. Human intrusions & disturbance

6.1 Recreational activities

7. Natural System Modifications

7.2 Dams & Water management/use

7.2.9 Small dams

7.2.10 Large dams

7.2.11 Dams (size unknown)

Threats

9. Pollution

9.1 Domestic & urban waste water

9.1.1 Sewage

9.1.2 Run-off

9.1.3 Type Unknown/Unrecorded

9.2 Industrial & military effluents

9.2.1 Oil spills

9.2.2 Seepage from mining

9.2.3 Type Unknown/Unrecorded

9.3 Agricultural & forestry effluents

9.3.1 Nutrient loads

9.3.2 Soil erosion, sedimentation

9.3.3 Herbicides and pesticides

9.3.4 Type Unknown/Unrecorded

9.4 Garbage & solid waste

Threats

11 Climate change & severe weather

11.1 Habitat shifting & alteration

11.2 Droughts

11.3 Temperature extremes

11.4 Storms & flooding

You have to have strong evidence to choose these

Population consequences

Conservation Actions

Two tasks

Write narrative describing Conservation Actions – In Place

Be very specific in the text, assume reader has no idea what a specific Conservation Actions implies (they probably won’t!)

Use keywords associated with threat selections below

Select specific Conservation Actions required to mitigate major threats

Be selective – don’t choose everything (even though it may be tempting!)

Be realistic

Don’t record a full ‘wish list’

Achieved in the next 5 years

Conservation Actions

1. Land/water protection

2. Land/water management

3. Species management

4. Education & awareness

5. Law & policy

6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives

Conservation Actions

1. Land/water protection

2. Land/water management

3. Species management

4. Education & awareness

5. Law & policy

Most relevant

6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives

Conservation Actions

1 Land/water protection

1.1 Site/area protection

1.2 Resource & habitat protection

Marine Protected Area designation

Conservation Actions

2 Land/water management

2.1 Site/area management

MPA has already been set up but implementation required (no paper parks)

2.3 Habitat & natural process restoration

• coral reef restoration

• mangrove replanting

• modify land use policy

(logging and sedimentation)

• dam removal

• cleaning up oil spills

Conservation Actions

3 Species management

3.1 Species management

3.1.1 Harvest management

Management of harvest

– fishing effort controls

3.1.2 Trade management

– trade regulations of specific populations non CITES trade regulations aquarium trade regulations

Conservation Actions

4 Education & awareness

4.2 Training

Species identification (fisheries observers)

4.3 Awareness & communications

Shark nets

Conservation Actions

5 Law & policy

5.1 Legislation

5.1.1 International level

CITES – a more general international agreement (than 3.1.2 – trade management) for the species itself or a group of species

(e.g. hammerheads)

5.1.2 National level

5.1.3 Sub-national level

5.1.4 Scale unspecified

5.2 Policies and regulations

(Salafsky)

Conservation Actions

5 Law & policy

5.3 Private sector standards & codes

Marine Aquarium Council

Marine Stewardship Council

5.4 Compliance and enforcement

If it has CITES, for example, it would require this

5.4.1 International level

5.4.2 National level

5.4.3 Sub-national level

5.4.4 Scale unspecified

Threats and Conservation Actions

Any questions?

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