Safety and Sanitation

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Safety and Sanitation
What you need to know to be safe in the FACS
classroom.
Objectives
Define safety rule
Identify general safety guidelines
List 6 ways to prevent kitchen accidents
Explain the importance of cleanliness in the kitchen
Describe safe food practices
Examine proper food temperatures
Examine common foodbourne illnesses
TERMS
CPR
Spore
Heimlich maneuver
Food Safety
Polarized plug
Sanitation
Contaminant
Personal Hygiene
Food borne illness
20 second scrub
Microorganism
Cross contamination
Toxin
Internal temperature
What is a safety rule?
Best defined as a specific statement about the
behavior allowed or not allowed in a given set of
circumstances.
Federal law requires safety training before workers
or students enter the work area.
General Safety rules to
follow
Proper protective wear
should be worn before
entering the work area to
work.
If you see something that
looks dangerous, tell the
teacher immediately.
Clean up any spills at once.
When picking up a heavy
object always bend at the
knees while keeping your
back straight.
Keep floors and aisles clear
of equipment and
chemicals.
Any accident, injury, or
emergency should be
reported immediately to
the teacher.
Horseplay is considered the
number one cause of injury
in the classroom and should
be avoided
Kitchen Safety
Kitchen basics
Focus on what you are doing, especially when you are
cutting, cooking or using appliances.
Dress for safety. Tie hair back, no loose sleeves, and keep
apron strings tied.
Use the right tool for the job. Use all equipment safely.
Close drawers completely to avoid bumps, bruises and
cuts.
Store large pots and pans and other bulky items on low
shelves.
Control clutter. Put all items back as soon as finished.
Preventing Falls
A common cause of
household injuries
Wipe up spills and spatters
right away.
Wear snug shoes without
trailing shoelaces
Use a sturdy step stool to
reach high shelves rather
than a chair, box, or stool.
Sharp Edges
Prevention Tips
Store knives in a divided drawer,
knife block or rack.
Learn when and how to use
different types of knives, so you
use the right knife for the job.
Always use a cutting board when
cutting.
Do not soak knives in a sink or
dishpan.
Take extra care when cleaning
knives.
Dry knives by wiping them
carefully, with the blade pointed
away from you.
Keep fingers away from rough
surfaces, slicing edges, and
rotating beaters.
Sweep up broken items right
away with broom and dustpan.
Use wet paper towel to pick up
small pieces instead of fingers.
Seal broken pieces in a bag and
place in waste basket.
Fires and Burns
Cook top safety
Through cleaning prevents grease and bits of food
from building up in burners, ovens, range hoods, and
toasters which prevent fires.
Use cookware that is in good condition.
Handle cookware with dry potholders or oven mitts.
Turn handles of pans toward the back or center of
the range
To remove lid, lift the far edge first (away from you)
Continued
Turn off burners before reaching over them.
Keep flammable items away from heat and flame.
Use only heat proof utensils when cooking
Oven Safety
Arrange racks before
turning oven on.
Turn oven off right after
using.
Stand to the side when
opening hot oven.
Clean spills and crumbs
after oven has cooled.
Use a potholder. Pull oven
rack a little first, then lift
the pan
When using a gas range, if
you smell gas, check the
pilot light first.
If a fire starts…
Turn off burner if the fire is on a cook top.
Unplug cord if it is an electric skillet, toaster, or other
small appliance.
Turn off heat if in the oven. Keep door closed until
fire dies out.
Smother with lid, pan, salt or baking soda.
If using a fire
extinguisher
The first step is to pull the safety pin at the top of the
extinguisher.
Aim the nozzle, horn, or hose at the base of the
flames.
Squeeze or press the handle.
Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until it
is completely extinguished.
Electricity and
Chemicals
Cords
Household Chemicals
Check for damage before each
use.
Read label and instructions
carefully.
Grasp the plug at the electrical
outlet rather that the cord to
unplug an item.
Keep in original containers.
Limit number of cords in an
electric outlet
Polarized plug- reduces risk of
shock. Jas one blade wider that
the other. Do not try to fit into a
non-polarized outlet.
If chemical must be placed in
a secondary container, a label
must be on it showing the
chemical name and
information
Follow all directions for
ventilation and protection.
More about Household
Chemicals
Never mix household chemicals
Make sure nozzle is pointed away from people when
spraying
Store hazardous chemicals away from food.
Never throw unused chemicals in the trash or pour
down the drain.
Handling Emergencies
Never hesitate to call for help. Always report to teacher
immediately.
Stay calm.
Keep emergency numbers handy.
Learn to use fire extinguisher. Test yearly.
Heimlich Maneuver- a way to dislodge an object from the throat of
a person who is chocking by using a series of upward thrusts on the
abdomen.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technique used to revive a
person whose breathing and heartbeat have stopped. Chest
compressions sometimes accompanied by breathing.
Sanitation
Food borne illness
Contaminant- a substance, such as a chemical or
organism, that makes food unsafe to eat.
Food borne illness- sickness caused by eating foods
that contain contaminants
Symptoms: fever, headache, digestive troubles
At Risk: children, pregnant women, older adults, and
chronically ill are most at risk.
Roots of F.B.I.
Microorganisms- living things so small that it can only be seen
through a microscope.
Bacteria- many in the body that are harmless, they aid in food
digestion and are essential for health.
A few dangerous bacteria to humans produce a toxin or poison
that can cause illness.
Bacteria can not travel far by themselves, they are carried on
people, animals, insects, and objects.
Bacteria in food can multiply through careless handling. In just a
few hours, one bacterium can multiply into thousands- yet the
food may look, taste, and smell completely safe to eat.
Food Safety
Keeping food safe to eat by following proper food
handling and cooking practices.
Keep yourself and your kitchen clean
Do not cross contaminate
Cook food thoroughly
Refrigerate food promptly
Cleanliness in the
kitchen
General guidelines
Sanitation- the prevention of illness through cleanliness.
Personal hygiene- thoroughly washing your body, face,
and hands help avoid transferring harmful bacteria when
handling food.
Your hands come in frequent contact with food, so
keeping them clean is the single most effective way to
prevent the transfer of bacteria.
Do a 20 second scrub with soap and warm water after
handling raw fish, shellfish, meat and eggs. Immediately
after using the toilet, blowing your nose, handling pets, or
touching your face, hair, or any other part of your body.
Or after touching anyone else.
A clean kitchen
Wash work surfaces and utensils in hot sudsy water before
preparing food.
Change dish towels often. Use separate towels for wiping
hands, dishes, and other purposes.
Pest control: Clean up crumbs and food spills from floors,
counters and tables that might attract insects.
Sprinkle chili powder, paprika or dried peppermint across ant
trails.
Wash all tools and work surfaces that were used, mop any spills
on the floor, wash the sink to remove grease and bits of food.
Dishwashing
Guidelines
Scrape and rinse soiled dishes and place to one side
of the sink.
Group dishes and wash in order: glasses, flat ware,
plates and bowls, kitchen tools.
Rinse thoroughly in hot water.
Let dishes air dry or dry with a clean towel.
Wash knives last, handle with care and towel dry
Cross Contamination
The spread of harmful
bacteria from one food to
another.
Place cooked food on a
clean plate not one that
held raw food.
Can occur with any food,
raw or cooked.
Use a different cutting
board for meat, poultry and
seafood
When preparing raw meat,
poultry, or seafood, wash
every surface the food
touched with hot soapy
water.
Wash in hot sudsy water,
allow to air dry.
Common Illnesses
Clostridium botulinum- botulism, which can be fatal.
Improperly processed canned foods.
Escherichia coli- raw or rare ground beef, unwashed
produce, unpasteurized milk or apple cider.
Salmonella- raw or undercooked poultry, eggs, meat,
and seafood; unpasteurized milk
Cooking Food Safely
Food Temperature
Affects bacteria growth.
The danger zone is the range in which bacteria grow
fastest: 40˚F -140˚F
Less time at room temperature, more slowly bacteria
will multiply.
Internal Temperatures
Used to know if food has
been cooked thoroughly
enough to kill bacteria.
IT is the temperature deep
inside the thickest part of
the food.
Minimum internal temp. for
beef burgers is 155˚F
Minimum internal temp. for
Turkey is 165˚F
Chicken needs to be cooked
to the highest temperature.
Safe cooking temperatures
are 140˚F to 180˚F
Refrigerators set at 40˚F.
Freezers set at 0˚F
Keep foods hot at 140˚F
Thawing Food
Never defrost frozen food at room temperature.
Place in a container in the refrigerator
Need quicker thaw in a watertight plastic bag and
submerge it in a bowl or sink of cold water. Change
every 30 minutes to keep water cold.
Follow microwave instructions if needed
immediately.
Serving Food
Keep hot foods hot- higher than 140˚F
Keep cold foods cold- keep refrigerated until serving
time.
Follow the 2 hour rule- foods that contain meat,
poultry, fish, eggs, or dairy should not sit at room
temperature longer than 2 hours.
If the temperature is higher than 90˚F limit to 1 hour.
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