Safety and Sanitation What you need to know to be safe in the FACS classroom. Objectives Define safety rule Identify general safety guidelines List 6 ways to prevent kitchen accidents Explain the importance of cleanliness in the kitchen Describe safe food practices Examine proper food temperatures Examine common foodbourne illnesses TERMS CPR Spore Heimlich maneuver Food Safety Polarized plug Sanitation Contaminant Personal Hygiene Food borne illness 20 second scrub Microorganism Cross contamination Toxin Internal temperature What is a safety rule? Best defined as a specific statement about the behavior allowed or not allowed in a given set of circumstances. Federal law requires safety training before workers or students enter the work area. General Safety rules to follow Proper protective wear should be worn before entering the work area to work. If you see something that looks dangerous, tell the teacher immediately. Clean up any spills at once. When picking up a heavy object always bend at the knees while keeping your back straight. Keep floors and aisles clear of equipment and chemicals. Any accident, injury, or emergency should be reported immediately to the teacher. Horseplay is considered the number one cause of injury in the classroom and should be avoided Kitchen Safety Kitchen basics Focus on what you are doing, especially when you are cutting, cooking or using appliances. Dress for safety. Tie hair back, no loose sleeves, and keep apron strings tied. Use the right tool for the job. Use all equipment safely. Close drawers completely to avoid bumps, bruises and cuts. Store large pots and pans and other bulky items on low shelves. Control clutter. Put all items back as soon as finished. Preventing Falls A common cause of household injuries Wipe up spills and spatters right away. Wear snug shoes without trailing shoelaces Use a sturdy step stool to reach high shelves rather than a chair, box, or stool. Sharp Edges Prevention Tips Store knives in a divided drawer, knife block or rack. Learn when and how to use different types of knives, so you use the right knife for the job. Always use a cutting board when cutting. Do not soak knives in a sink or dishpan. Take extra care when cleaning knives. Dry knives by wiping them carefully, with the blade pointed away from you. Keep fingers away from rough surfaces, slicing edges, and rotating beaters. Sweep up broken items right away with broom and dustpan. Use wet paper towel to pick up small pieces instead of fingers. Seal broken pieces in a bag and place in waste basket. Fires and Burns Cook top safety Through cleaning prevents grease and bits of food from building up in burners, ovens, range hoods, and toasters which prevent fires. Use cookware that is in good condition. Handle cookware with dry potholders or oven mitts. Turn handles of pans toward the back or center of the range To remove lid, lift the far edge first (away from you) Continued Turn off burners before reaching over them. Keep flammable items away from heat and flame. Use only heat proof utensils when cooking Oven Safety Arrange racks before turning oven on. Turn oven off right after using. Stand to the side when opening hot oven. Clean spills and crumbs after oven has cooled. Use a potholder. Pull oven rack a little first, then lift the pan When using a gas range, if you smell gas, check the pilot light first. If a fire starts… Turn off burner if the fire is on a cook top. Unplug cord if it is an electric skillet, toaster, or other small appliance. Turn off heat if in the oven. Keep door closed until fire dies out. Smother with lid, pan, salt or baking soda. If using a fire extinguisher The first step is to pull the safety pin at the top of the extinguisher. Aim the nozzle, horn, or hose at the base of the flames. Squeeze or press the handle. Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until it is completely extinguished. Electricity and Chemicals Cords Household Chemicals Check for damage before each use. Read label and instructions carefully. Grasp the plug at the electrical outlet rather that the cord to unplug an item. Keep in original containers. Limit number of cords in an electric outlet Polarized plug- reduces risk of shock. Jas one blade wider that the other. Do not try to fit into a non-polarized outlet. If chemical must be placed in a secondary container, a label must be on it showing the chemical name and information Follow all directions for ventilation and protection. More about Household Chemicals Never mix household chemicals Make sure nozzle is pointed away from people when spraying Store hazardous chemicals away from food. Never throw unused chemicals in the trash or pour down the drain. Handling Emergencies Never hesitate to call for help. Always report to teacher immediately. Stay calm. Keep emergency numbers handy. Learn to use fire extinguisher. Test yearly. Heimlich Maneuver- a way to dislodge an object from the throat of a person who is chocking by using a series of upward thrusts on the abdomen. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technique used to revive a person whose breathing and heartbeat have stopped. Chest compressions sometimes accompanied by breathing. Sanitation Food borne illness Contaminant- a substance, such as a chemical or organism, that makes food unsafe to eat. Food borne illness- sickness caused by eating foods that contain contaminants Symptoms: fever, headache, digestive troubles At Risk: children, pregnant women, older adults, and chronically ill are most at risk. Roots of F.B.I. Microorganisms- living things so small that it can only be seen through a microscope. Bacteria- many in the body that are harmless, they aid in food digestion and are essential for health. A few dangerous bacteria to humans produce a toxin or poison that can cause illness. Bacteria can not travel far by themselves, they are carried on people, animals, insects, and objects. Bacteria in food can multiply through careless handling. In just a few hours, one bacterium can multiply into thousands- yet the food may look, taste, and smell completely safe to eat. Food Safety Keeping food safe to eat by following proper food handling and cooking practices. Keep yourself and your kitchen clean Do not cross contaminate Cook food thoroughly Refrigerate food promptly Cleanliness in the kitchen General guidelines Sanitation- the prevention of illness through cleanliness. Personal hygiene- thoroughly washing your body, face, and hands help avoid transferring harmful bacteria when handling food. Your hands come in frequent contact with food, so keeping them clean is the single most effective way to prevent the transfer of bacteria. Do a 20 second scrub with soap and warm water after handling raw fish, shellfish, meat and eggs. Immediately after using the toilet, blowing your nose, handling pets, or touching your face, hair, or any other part of your body. Or after touching anyone else. A clean kitchen Wash work surfaces and utensils in hot sudsy water before preparing food. Change dish towels often. Use separate towels for wiping hands, dishes, and other purposes. Pest control: Clean up crumbs and food spills from floors, counters and tables that might attract insects. Sprinkle chili powder, paprika or dried peppermint across ant trails. Wash all tools and work surfaces that were used, mop any spills on the floor, wash the sink to remove grease and bits of food. Dishwashing Guidelines Scrape and rinse soiled dishes and place to one side of the sink. Group dishes and wash in order: glasses, flat ware, plates and bowls, kitchen tools. Rinse thoroughly in hot water. Let dishes air dry or dry with a clean towel. Wash knives last, handle with care and towel dry Cross Contamination The spread of harmful bacteria from one food to another. Place cooked food on a clean plate not one that held raw food. Can occur with any food, raw or cooked. Use a different cutting board for meat, poultry and seafood When preparing raw meat, poultry, or seafood, wash every surface the food touched with hot soapy water. Wash in hot sudsy water, allow to air dry. Common Illnesses Clostridium botulinum- botulism, which can be fatal. Improperly processed canned foods. Escherichia coli- raw or rare ground beef, unwashed produce, unpasteurized milk or apple cider. Salmonella- raw or undercooked poultry, eggs, meat, and seafood; unpasteurized milk Cooking Food Safely Food Temperature Affects bacteria growth. The danger zone is the range in which bacteria grow fastest: 40˚F -140˚F Less time at room temperature, more slowly bacteria will multiply. Internal Temperatures Used to know if food has been cooked thoroughly enough to kill bacteria. IT is the temperature deep inside the thickest part of the food. Minimum internal temp. for beef burgers is 155˚F Minimum internal temp. for Turkey is 165˚F Chicken needs to be cooked to the highest temperature. Safe cooking temperatures are 140˚F to 180˚F Refrigerators set at 40˚F. Freezers set at 0˚F Keep foods hot at 140˚F Thawing Food Never defrost frozen food at room temperature. Place in a container in the refrigerator Need quicker thaw in a watertight plastic bag and submerge it in a bowl or sink of cold water. Change every 30 minutes to keep water cold. Follow microwave instructions if needed immediately. Serving Food Keep hot foods hot- higher than 140˚F Keep cold foods cold- keep refrigerated until serving time. Follow the 2 hour rule- foods that contain meat, poultry, fish, eggs, or dairy should not sit at room temperature longer than 2 hours. If the temperature is higher than 90˚F limit to 1 hour.