Latin America After WWII

Latin America After
IB Objectives
Spread of Cold War from Europe
 US Foreign Policy during the Cold War
Key Terms
 Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
 Operation Success
 Alliance for Progess
Lecture Outline
Effects of the Cold War
B. Guatemala
C. Alliance for Progress
D. the role of the Church
II. Latin America’s economy
1948 the US took the lead in creating the
Organization of American States.
 There were 21 countries initially but all 35
independent countries of the Americas are
now members.
 Primary purposes include: strengthening
democracy; defending human rights;
promoting sustainable development; and
common defense.
1950 Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman was
elected president of Guatemala.
 2% of Guatemalans controlled 74% of the
nation’s farm land.
 1952 a law is passed which 223 acres of
land was to be expropriated by the
Guatemalan government and distributed
to the landless.
 Arbenz paid the United Fruit Company
$600,000 for its 550,000 acres.
1953 President Eisenhower approved a
plan to overthrow Arbenz.
 May 1954 Czech weapons landed in
Guatemala in violation of US imposed
arms embargo and the US used it as
pretext for initiating Operation Success—
the planned coup d’etat against Arbenz.
Arbenz was overthrown and a new
president hand picked by the US was put
into power.
 The 1952 land reform act was revoked
and the United Fruit Company regained its
Alliance for Progress
1961 President Kennedy created the
Alliance for Progress whose goal was to
relieve poverty and social inequities.
 The US agreed to commit $20 billion to
the program over a 120 year period.
 It was dissolved in 1973.
Catholic Church
1950s the Church began to compete with
Communists for the support of the
 In the 1970s the Church began to be a
champion of individual human rights in an
attempt to protect the people from both
political extremes.
 Christian Democratic Parties were created.
 In July 1980 Pope John Paul II forbade
the clergy from holding political office.
By 1982 Latin American debt was over $315 billion
with Brazil owing $87.5 billion and Argentina $43.6
Prices of locally produced manufactured goods were
often 300% above the world price.
1980-1984 overall growth in Latin America dropped
by about 9%.
Total burden of debt increased by about 9% per
By 2003 all the countries of Latin America except
Cuba where under some form of elected
LA p. 440-455
Fidel Castro
Fundamental Law of
the Republic
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Cuban Missile Crisis
Law of Agrarian
Second Agrarian Law
 Cuban Women’s
 Torricelli Act
 Helms-Burton Act