PPT - Bhaderwah Estates

Organic farming &
Dr. J. P. Sharma
Microbiology lab. QCQA Division
Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine
Canal Road, Jammu
 It is a holistic approach where nature is perceived to be more
than just an individual element. In this farming system there is
dynamic interaction between soil, humus, plant, animal
ecosystem and the environment. Organic farming improves the
structure and fertility of the soil through balanced choice of
crop and implementation of diversified crop rotation systems.
In this system control of pest disease and weeds is primarily
done by adopting organic measures which will not affect the
 Standards are developed by many companies for the
certification of organic farming.
View of a modern organic farm
Organic farming
• Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on
techniques such as crop rotation,green manure, compost
and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity
and fertility.
• Organic agricultural methods are internationally
regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based
on the standards set by the International Federation of
Organic Agriculture Movements(IFO AM) which was
established in 1972.
• Artificial fertilizers had been created during 18th
century and also advances in chemical pesticides
occurred which lead to organic movement .
• The organic movement began in the 1930’s and
1940’s as a result of reliance on synthetic fertilizers.
• 1940’s decade was referred as to the ‘pesticide era’.
• Sir Albert Howard is considered as the ‘father of
organic farming’ .
Organic farming methods:
• Soil management
• Weed management
• Biological pest control
• Crop rotation
• Composting
Soil management:
• Plants need N,P,K and as well as micronutrients and
symbiotic relationship with fungi and other organisms to
flourish and for getting N.
• Soil management includes :
- crop rotation (using legumes)
- green manure
- intercropping
- using processed fertilizers (seed meal & various mineral
- mixed farming
These practices maintains the fertility of the soil & also
checks soil erosion.
Weed management:
• Organic weed management promotes weed
suppression, rather than weed elimination, by
enhancing crop competition and phyto toxic
effects on weeds.
• Organic crop rotations frequently include weed
suppressive crops and crops with dissimilar life
cycles to discourage weeds association with a
particular crop.
• Cultural practices include selection of
competitive crop varieties, high-density planting
& tight row spacing.
• Mechanical and physical weed control practices.
Biological pest control: Bio pesticides
These are microbial biological pest control agents that are applied in a
similar manner as chemical pesticides.
• Formulation of bacteria like Bacillus thuringiensis control the insect
pests of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera .
Bio control agents including Trichoderma spp. and Ampelomyces
quisqualis controls diseases caused by plant pathogens
• Biological insecticide include products based on :
Entomopathogenic fungi ( eg. Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium
lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae). Entomopathogenic nematodes (eg.
Steinernema feltiae, S.carpocapsae)
• The biofertilizers viz. Rhizobium. Azotobacter and Azospirilum used as
bio agent in organic farming practices.
Crop rotation:
• Growing the same crops in the same site year
after year reduces soil fertility and encourages a
build up of pests ,diseases and weeds in the soil.
Crops should be moved to a different site of land
each year, and not returned to the original for
several years.
• A typical 4 year rotation would include a cycle
with maize and beans, a root crop and cereals with
a legume crop .
Why farm organically?
• Organic farming provides long term benefits to people and the
• Modern, intensive agriculture causes many problems including
• Artificial fertilizers and herbicides are easily washed from the soil
and pollute rivers , lakes and other water bodies .
• Its prolonged use results in soils with a low organic matter content
which is easily eroded by wind and rain.
• Dependency on fertilizers .Greater amounts are
needed every year to produce the same yields of crops.
• Artificial pesticides can stay in the soil for longer
period and enters the food chain which causes health
• Artificial chemicals destroy soil micro- organisms
resulting in poor soil structure and aeration and
decreasing nutrient availability.
• Pests and disease become more difficult to control as
they become resistance to artificial pesticides.
International standards
• International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements
(IFOAM) has produced a set of international organic
standards, laid down by people from many countries.
• The main principles of organic farming were laid down by
IFOAM in 1992:
• To produce food of high nutritional quality in sufficient
quantity and cycles.
• To encourage and enhance biological cycles within the
farming system , involving micro-organisms, soil flora and
fauna, plants and animals.
• The organic product are to be certified by an
independent body which provide guarantee that
the products have been made according to the
organic production standards.
Many organic inspection and certifying agencies
• Ecocert-India,Aurangabad
• Skal,Banglore
• One Cert- Asia, Jaipur
• Crop Improvement Association (CIA)
• Oregon
• Tilth
BGA as biofertilizer for Rice field
• Blue green algae can be grown in open air in shallow
tanks made of bricks
• The starter culture used for multiplication is mixture
of Nostoc,Anabaena,Plectonema ,Tylopothrix etc.
• Prepare shallow trays (6’X3’X9”) of galvanized iron
sheet or with bricks. The size can be increased as
• Spread 8-10kg of loam soil in the tray mix 200g of
• Fill 2”-6” with water and spread starter culture 500g
per tray
• After 7-8 days harvest the algae and dry.1.5-2kg
algae will produce per tray
• In rice field 8Kg/hac of the BGA should be added
7day after planting for consecutive crops
• 14% increase in yield of rice has been recorded
• BGA contribute 30-40kg N/Hac in the ecosystem
• Addition income from BGA upto Rs.500/Hac.
• N-fixing BGA is certainly an efficient way of
providing an alternative source of nitrogen for rice
Problems and constrains
• The most important constraint felt in the
progress of organic farming is the inability of
the government policy making level to take a
firm decision to promote organic agriculture in
• Lack of awareness
• Output marketing problems
• Shortage of bio-mass
• Inadequate supporting infrastructure
• High input costs
• Marketing problems of organic inputs
• Absence of an appropriate agriculture policy
Lack of financial support
Low yields
Inability to meet the export demand
Vested Interests
Lack of quality standards for bio manures
Improper accounting method
Political and social factors.
• Compost is organic matter (plant and animal residues) which has
been rotted down by the action of bacteria and other organisms , over
a period of time .
• Compost is cheap to make and is a very effective material that can be
added to the soil , to improve soil and crop quality.
• Compost improves soil structure . This allows more air into the soil
,improves drainage and reduces erosion.
• Compost improves soil fertility by adding nutrients and by making it
easier for plants to take up the nutrients already in the soil. This
produces better yields.
• Compost improves the soil’s ability to hold water. This stops the soil
from drying out in times of drought.
 The total solid wastes generated in India in the farm of
agriculture wastes is ~320 million tons, municipal wastes
~25 million tons, cattle manure~210 million tons and poultry
manures ~ 3.3 million tons.
 Composting is a controlled process of decomposition used to
transform organic material into humus (or) compost. In
nature, organic wastes are broken down through a
combination of biological and chemical processes.
Biological agents like worms, insects, fungi, bacteria and
other microorganisms "chew up" the materials, which are
further transformed by oxidation (exposure to air), reduction
and hydrolysis (exposure to water).
• Vermicomposting
Vermicompost is the end product of breakdown of organic
matter by some species of earthworm.
• Vermicompost is a nutrient rich natural fertilizer and soil
conditioner. The process of producing vermicompost is
called vermicomposting.
• Vermicompost is nothing but the excreta of earthworms,
which is rich in humus and nutrients.
About Earthworm:
• Earthworms are hermaphrodite, have both the male and
female organs in one individual, require another earthworm
to mate. The wide band clitellum secretes mucus after
mating. Sperm from another worm is stored there. The
mucus slides and encases the egg and sperm inside. There
forms lemon shape cocoon 1/8 inch long. With in 3weeks
two or more baby worms will hatch which are whitish ½ to
1inch long. Red worms take about 4-5 weeks to become
sexually mature. The earthworm breaths through skin. Food
is ingested through mouth passes through gizzard into
intestine for digestion and then what left is eliminated as
Eisenia foetida
Amyanthas diffringens
Eudrilus enginae
Perionyx excavatus
Lumbricus rubellus
Materials for preparation of
Biodegradable wastes:
Crop residues
Weed biomass
Vegetable waste
Leaf litter
Hotel refuse
Waste from agro-industries
Biodegradable portion of urban and rural wastes.
A thatched roof shed preferably open from all side with
unpaved (kacha) floor is erected in east west direction
length wise to protect the site from direct sunlight. A shed
area of 12´x12´is sufficient to accommodate three
vermibeds of 10´x 3´each having 1´space in between for
the treatment of 9-12 quintals of waste in a cycle of 4045days. The length of the shed can be increased or
decreased depending upon the quantity of waste to be
converted and availability of space. The height of
thatched roof is kept at 8 feet from the centre and 6 feet
from the sides. The base of site is raised at least 6 to 9
inches above the ground to protect it from flooding
during the rains.
 The vermibeds are laid over the raised ground by
putting a layer of 4″to 6″ of any slowly biodegradable
agricultural residue i.e. dried leaves/straw/sugarcane
trash etc. after soaking with water. This is followed by
1″ layer of farmyard manure. The earth worms are
released on each vermibed @ 1-1.5kg per bed (10′ x 3′).
The frequency and limits of loading the waste can vary,
depending upon the convenience of the user i.e. Daily2″/ bed/ day. In bulk 12″ to15″ (3 to 4q/ bed/ cycle of
 Vermicompost can also be prepared in concrete tanks
with size of 10′ x 3′ x 3′. The available bio-wastes are
collected and are heaped under sun for 7-10 days. A
layer of
chopped weed biomass and partially
decomposed cow dung (1-2″) is to be placed at the
bottom. Place the chopped weed biomass and partially
decomposed cow dung (50:50) layer wise (10-20 cm) in
the tank up to 2.5ft. Release 2-3kg earthworm per ton of
biomass (or) 100 worms per sq. feet area. Place wire
net, bamboo net, banana leaves over the tank to protect
it from birds etc.
 Vermicomposting in small scale can also be done under the
shady trees by making vermibeds in high embankments
and releasing the worms. It can also be done in small plastic
tubs for the conversion of kitchen and other bio-degradable
waste of household into vermicompost for your kitchen
garden in the backyard.
Vermicomposting in process
Cocoon of the worms
Vermicomposting in cemented tanks
Vermicomposting in cemented tanks
A commercial Vermicompost production unit
 Vermicompost is an eco-friendly bio fertilizer.
 It is also rich in beneficial microflora such as N-fixer,
P-solubilizers and cellulose decomposer.
 Vermicompost is richer in micro-nutrients than other
 It enhances the decomposition of organic matter in
soil and also minimize the incidence of pests and
diseases in crop.
 It improves soil structure, aeration, texture, water
holding capacity and prevents soil erosion.
 It promotes better root growth and nutrient
 It contains valuable vitamins, enzymes and hormones
like auxins and gibberllins.
 It improve the nutrient status of soil-both
macronutrient and micronutrient.
 Vermibed / vermicompost should be protected from
direct sunlight.
 The worms should be protected from ants, rats and
 The vermibeds are covered with jute mat or banana
leaves to protect from birds and earthworms. Water is
sprinkled on the vermibeds to keep them moist.
 The waste is turned upside down fortnightly without
disturbing the basal layer
 Sprinkling of the water should be done regularly to
maintain 70-80% moisture contents.
 The black granular crumbly powder on the top of
vermibed indicate harvest stage of the compost.
 The watering is stopped 5 days before the harvesting
and the compost is collected from the top without
disturbing the lower layers.
 Shed should be provided over the compost to prevent
entry of rain water and direct sunlight
 Heaping can be done under shade and sieving may
also be done to separate the earthworm and cocoon.
 The first harvesting is ready after 2 months and the
subsequent lot can be harvested after 6 weeks of
 Granular compost formation after 40-45days at the
surface of tank indicate that the compost is ready for
harvesting which can be done by scrapping layer wise
from the top of the tank.
Recommended doses of vermicompost are as follows:
 For cereals/ pulses/vegetables:
@ 2 tons per acre
 For fruit crops:
@ 2-3 kg per plant
N (%)
P O (%)
K O (%)
Ca (%)
Mg (%)
Fe (ppm)
Mn (ppm)
Zn (ppm)
C:N ratio
 These values are subject to variation depending upon the type of organic waste.
Source: Punjab State council for Science and Technology,Chandigarh.
Nutrient (%)
Pig dung
Biogas slurry
Cow dung
Mustard cake
Neem cake
 Funds: In this project there is no constraint of funds
as it can be started by investment of Rs 10,000 /-only
or can range upto Rs 10 Lakh
 No Chance of failure: There is no chance of death of
the earthworms even the project is not running for
sometime. Secondly the product is easily sold locally
hence there is no chance of any loss.
 No Tax: Tax is also exempted for 10 Years for
industry which is producing organic manure from
 Subsidies : From DRDA, SSI, DIC and other Depts.
 No electricity : This is an project which can be started without
electricity, so it can be started without electricity hence it can
be started in remote areas. Hence 50 % of chemical fertilizer
can be replaced by this organic manure, so saving of power
used for production of that quantity of chemical fertilizers.
 Income: From cow dung of one cow or cattle, 2 tons of
organic manure can be produced, so additional income of
Rs.8000 to Rs 10,000 can be made. This can be increased by
50% next year.The profit can be increased by increasing the
investment and inputs.
 By using vermicompost regularly major diseases can be
eradicated at the grass root level by reducing non protein
nitrates and effects of pesticides on soil plants and human
 By complete replacement of chemical fertilizers (max. 1 ton
of vermicompost for 1Bigah of land in their farm the
farmers can produce more tasty, healthy and more yield of
 All biodegradables are converted into organic manure, so
all villages and towns can be kept clean. The chemical
fertilizers, pesticides and weedicides can be reduced to 50%
so pollution of water and air can be reduced.
Cost benefit ratio:
Waste treatment capacity:
• Cost of shed (thatched roof):
• Cost of worm culture(3kg):
• Cost of FYM and other waste:
Total cost:
Total number of cycles / year:
Average vermicompost yield / year:
Average yield of worm increase:
9- 12q / cycle
Rs. 30000 / Rs. 6000 / Rs. 6000 / Rs . 42000/ 8 Nos.
40 – 50 q
@ 5q to 6q /cycle
• Expected income from sale of
vermicompost @ R s. 4000/ ton: 16000 - 20000/Sale of earth worm culture
@ Rs. 1600-2000/Kg:
8000 - 10000/Total profit:
24000 -30000/Net profit Ist. Year :
24000 - 30000 /(-) 12000 = 12000 – 18000/2nd year: 50% increase in the Net profit
VERMIWASH- a plant growth regulator :
It is a liquid plant growth regulator which contain
high amount of enzymes, vitamins and hormones
like auxins and gibberllins along
micronutrients used as foliar spray.
Take one mug and a bucket. Set up one stop cork
on the lower part of the bucket.
Put a layer of broken bricks/pieces of stone 1015cm in the bucket.
Put a layer of 10-15cm sand over it and then put a
layer of partially decomposed cow dung 30-45cm
and put another layer of soil on it and open the
stop cork of the bucket.
Put 100-200Nos of earthworm in the bucket and
then a layer of paddy straw 6 cm is given.
Spray the water regularly for 7-10 days. After 10
days vermin wash will be produced in the bucket.
Hang one pot with a bottom hole over the bucket
in a way so that the water fall drop by drop.
Every day 4-5lit. of water is poured in the hanging
Keep another pot under the stop cork and collect
3-4lit. of Vermiwash everyday.
 Mix 1lit. of vermin wash with 7-10 lit. of water and
spray on the growing crops in the evening.
 Mix 1lit. of vermin wash with 1lit. of cow urine
and then add 10lit. of water. Mix and keep it over
night before spraying.
 50-60lit. of this solution is enough to be sprayed in
one bigah of land for controlling various diseases.