EPA standards for fuel economy and harmful emissions
Health and environmental effects of hydrocarbon fuel combustion
Immediate savings after implementation
Reduced consumption of foreign oil
Introduction to Idle
Describe what idle reduction is
Explain the basic history of idle reduction strategies and technologies
Describe how implementing idle reduction strategies will benefit health and the environment
Explain the economic benefits associated with idle reduction
Describe what energy security is and how idle reduction affects it
Petroleum and emissions reduction technologies and strategies
Idle = speed at which ICEs rotate under no throttle or load
Tachometer displays engine speed (600-
Smooth engine operation during acceleration from stop and adequate oil pressure
Transportation and convenience idling
Technologies, policies, strategies to reduce engine idle time
Strategies and technologies to reduce both transportation and convenience idling
Figure 1: The engine tachometer showing a vehicle’s idle speed. Source: NAFTC.
Idling a vehicle may allow for the comforts of heat or A/C and the operation of accessories such as radios or other multimedia, but when your vehicle is idling, your fuel economy when not in motion is 0 mpg.
ICEs in use since the early 20 th century
Old = mechanical carburetors/fuel pumping systems
New = electronic throttle, high pressure fuel system, electronic fuel injection
Idling vehicles produce no propulsion but still consume fuel and produce emissions
Pre-heating, pre-cooling for comfort
Idling while waiting for traffic, etc.
Load from accessories
Long-haul trucks may idle up to 300 nights a year
Non-driving time requirements
Policies for Idle Reduction
U.S. EPA emissions and CAFE fuel economy standards
More attention is being paid to emissions produced from idling
Federal tax exemptions for heavy-duty trucks
New vehicles and aftermarket products
Clean Cities program, SmartWay
Transportation, Clean School Bus USA partnership, and others
Figure 2: States that have policies or incentives to implement idle reduction technologies. Source: AFDC.
State enacted policies and idle limitations
Local and city government regulations
School bus emissions at idle
Amount of fuel used per idle time
Reduced idling = immediate fuel savings
Figure 3: School bus at idle, consuming fuel and producing emissions. Source: EPA.
Idling a car for one hour consumes about one gallon of fuel.
Cleaner, healthier planet
Improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions
Innovative technologies, specialized technicians
Technologies and strategies implemented by both manufacturers and consumers
Consumer Idle Reduction Strategies
Any reduction in idle time can save fuel and reduce emissions
Idling during in-city driving
Avoiding congested areas
Limit idle time for convenience
Immediate fuel savings
Manufacturer Idle Reduction
New technologies, improved fuel economy, and reduced emissions
Light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle fuel savings
Idle shutoff functions, mild hybrid technologies
APUs for long haul trucks
Figure 4: Driver in a long haul truck utilizing a type of
TSE. Source: IdleAir.
Truck idling uses approximately 3 billion gallons of fuel per year
• Approximately 1 billion gallons for overnight idling
• Roughly 2 billion gallons for workday idling
Every hour a truck idles unnecessarily is equivalent to about 8 to 10 miles of on-road driving.
Source: Argonne National Laboratory.
Personal and environmental health
Financial and fuel economy improvements
Technologies manufacturing and service
Implementation by both consumers and fleets
Immediate reductions in fuel consumption and emissions
Advantages of Idle Reduction
Reduced fuel consumption
Fewer vehicle emissions
Lower operating costs
Increased engine life
Additional Points to Consider
Possible capital investment
Personal convenience may be compromised
Health and environmental benefits
Reduced fuel costs - economics
Reduced dependence on foreign oil – energy security
Combustion of fuels produces harmful emissions
Creation of PM
Respiratory and cardiovascular complications
Idle reduction reduces vehicle emissions
Emissions negatively affect the environment
GHG formation, climate change
Idle reduction = reduced emissions
Excessive idling = unnecessary financial loss
Industry opportunity for implementation of idle reduction technologies
Reduced consumption = financial benefit for all drivers
Reduced idling = reduced fuel consumption
Reduced fuel consumption = reduced reliance on foreign oil
Nearly half of all petroleum used in the
U.S. is imported
Upon completing this lesson, can you:
Describe what idle reduction is?
Explain the basic history of idle reduction strategies and technologies?
Describe how implementing idle reduction strategies will benefit health and the environment?
Explain the economic benefits associated with idle reduction?
Describe what energy security is and how idle reduction affects it?
True or False: Engine speeds of idling engines under no load are typically 600-
1,000 rotations per minute (rpm).
What does the acronym TSE stand for and how does it relate to idle reduction?
A passenger car that is idles for one hour consumes about ___ gallon(s) of fuel.
True or False: Vehicles that are idling while not moving have a fuel economy of 0 miles per gallon (MPG).
Idle Reduction Policies,
Describe federal, state, and local policies on idle reduction
Explain how both manufacturers and consumers can implement idle reduction strategies
Explain the need for distribution of knowledge and possible infrastructure changes to assist in idle reduction
Describe how idle reduction relates to sustainability and cost efficiency
Reduced allowable emissions from vehicles
CAFE fuel economy standards for passenger cars and trucks
New goals implemented by the Obama administration
Fuel economy gains of more than 5% per year
Figure 5: New standards for light-duty vehicles in order to meet 2016 compliance. Source: EPA.
Figure 6: Compression-ignition engine emissions limits. Source: EPA.
Pre-defined test cycles for light- and heavyduty vehicles
Dynamometer vehicle testing
Fuel waste and emissions from overnight idling
New technology development
Strict standards and timelines
Figure 7: Test cycles for fuel economy and emissions of light-duty vehicles. Source: EPA.
Federal Idle Reduction Programs
Clean Cities program
Reduce petroleum consumption
Offers educational workshops, grants, program development assistance
Partnership between government and industry
Financing options for fuel-saving and emission reducing technologies
Clean School Bus USA
Partnership between EPA and private organizations
Reduce children’s exposure to school bus emissions
Limit school bus idling
For more information on Clean Cities initiatives in your area, visit: www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities .
For more information on a SmartWay program, visit: http://www.epa.gov/smartway/index.htm
To learn more about another DOE idle reduction project, visit: http://www.the-step-project.org
Individual regulations and incentives
Incentives often based on vehicle weight
Truck stop electrification (TSE) development
Maximum idling time per hour
Specific grant programs for idle reduction implementation
To learn about other states laws, visit http:/www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/state .
And http://www.atri-online.org/2012/01/01/idlingregulations-compendium/ .
Maximum idle time in public places
Idle time may vary by location, proximity to certain businesses
Figure 8: Idle-Free Tennessee Program. Source: East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition.
New technologies help light- duty manufacturers reach CAFE/EPA standards
Light- and medium-duty mild hybrid implementation
Heavy-duty idle timer use
Auxiliary power units (APUs)
Purchase of new technologies/vehicles
Understand how the vehicle operates
Minimum warm-up/cool-down times
Planning trips/avoiding traffic congestion
Distribution of Knowledge
Strategies are implemented on vehicles that are already in use
Easily adapted for advanced technology vehicles
Immediate fuel and emissions reductions
Some strategies requires no infrastructure development
Mild hybrid, HEV, EV production already in place
Heavy-duty sector development
APUs, TSE (possibility for up to 5,000 TSE sites)
Utilization of electricity over petroleum
Completely sustainable practices
Small changes can affect fuel consumption
Less dependence on foreign oil supplies
Remember overnight commercial truck idling consumes about 1 billion gallons a fuel a year
Immediate fuel savings
Strategies can be implemented at no cost
Technology investment may be offset by tax incentives and fuel savings
The Future of Idle Reduction
Necessary part of achieving higher fuel economy ratings
Evolution from options to standard equipment
Upon completing this lesson, can you:
Describe federal, state, and local policies on idle reduction?
Explain how both manufacturers and consumers can implement idle reduction strategies?
Explain the need for distribution of knowledge and possible infrastructure changes to assist in idle reduction?
Describe how idle reduction relates to sustainability and cost efficiency?
True or False: The Clean Cities and SmartWay transportation programs are examples of federal programs that address benefits of idle reduction.
In West Virginia, a heavy-duty vehicle may not operate more than ________ minutes within a sixty minute period.
The EPA estimates that overnight idling of long- haul trucks consumes 1 (thousand, million, billion) gallons of fuel annually.
True or False: Additions in TSE could provide up to
64 electrified truck stops nationwide.
Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the heavy-duty vehicle sector
Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the light- and medium-duty vehicle sector
Describe the safety, performance, and maintenance of vehicles that utilize idle reduction technologies
Describe some of the vehicles available with idle reduction technologies already in place
Long-haul commercial freight carriers
Rest/driving requirements set by the U.S.
Average truck idles more than 1,400 hours annually
Technology, strategy developments to reduce idle time
No up-front implementation cost
State-enforced anti-idling laws
Warm-up and cool-down procedures may require idle time
To find an electrified truck stop in your region, the DOE hosts a site locator searchable by zip code. It can be found at http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/tse .
Truck Stop Electrification (TSE)
Single-system vs. dual-system
Single-system offers heating, A/C, electricity, internet, cable
Unit is placed in passenger window
Offers connectivity and comfort features
Dual-system requires onboard equipment for each truck
Driver plugs truck in to the electrical outlet to power onboard equipment – known as “shore power”
Figure 9: Long-haul trucks using truck stop electrification. Source: EPA.
Powered by external electrical source or existing fuel system
Use is more efficient than allowing the engine to idle
Direct-fired = small furnaces
Consumes only a small amount of fuel per hour
Coolant heaters = heat transfer system
Can be used to heat cabin and warm engine in cold climates
Figure 10: Direct-fired heater installed in a long haul truck. Source: DOT.
Thermal storage, battery-electric air conditioners
Thermal storage: energy is stored during normal operation, used at a later time to cool cab
Battery-electric air conditioners: powered by onboard batteries that are charged at truck stops
Both produce zero local emissions
Auxiliary Power Units (APUs)
Small vehicle-mounted systems
Electrical generator powered by an internal combustion engine
Heat recapture from ICE
Powers accessories, HVAC
Rechargeable battery packs
Figure 11: Auxiliary power unit attached behind the fuel tank of a long haul truck. Source: IdleAir.
Light- and Medium-Duty Idle Reduction
Over 234 million light-duty vehicles registered in 2010
Implementation of idle reduction strategies can have drastic effects
Enormous potential for reduced fuel consumption
Provide immediate fuel savings
Modern vehicle warm-up functions
Extended idling situations
Engine operation at higher speeds
Research is being conducted
Advancements help reduce fuel consumption
Use grid power to maintain engine temperature
Operate on standard 120VAC outlet
Reduces ‘necessary’ idle time
Idle shutoff function
Small battery pack and motor/generator (MG)
Used only for short amounts of time
Reduce idle time by shutting ICE off
Other Idle Shutoff Technologies
Advanced engine technologies reduce amount of energy needed to restart engine
Vehicle Maintenance, Performance, and
Similar if not the same as conventional vehicles
Regular scheduled maintenance
Same performance, reduced fuel consumption
Same safety systems as conventional vehicles
Upon completing this lesson, can you:
Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the heavy-duty vehicle sector?
Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the light-duty vehicle sector?
Describe the safety, performance, and maintenance of vehicles that utilize idle reduction technologies?
Describe some of the vehicles available with idle reduction technologies already in place?
True or False: The only idle reduction option for light-duty consumers is to purchase new mild hybrid vehicles.
What does the acronym APU stand for?
_____________ heaters are like small furnaces that can be used to heat the cabs of long-haul trucks.
True or False: Commercial truckers are required to take minimum amounts of rest time from driving each day.