Benefits of Idle Reduction

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Introduction

EPA standards for fuel economy and harmful emissions

Health and environmental effects of hydrocarbon fuel combustion

Idle reduction

Immediate savings after implementation

Reduced consumption of foreign oil

2

Lesson 1:

Introduction to Idle

Reduction

3

Objectives

Describe what idle reduction is

Explain the basic history of idle reduction strategies and technologies

Describe how implementing idle reduction strategies will benefit health and the environment

Explain the economic benefits associated with idle reduction

Describe what energy security is and how idle reduction affects it

4

Definition of Idle Reduction

Petroleum and emissions reduction technologies and strategies

Idle = speed at which ICEs rotate under no throttle or load

Tachometer displays engine speed (600-

1,000 rpm)

Smooth engine operation during acceleration from stop and adequate oil pressure

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Transportation and convenience idling

Technologies, policies, strategies to reduce engine idle time

Strategies and technologies to reduce both transportation and convenience idling

Figure 1: The engine tachometer showing a vehicle’s idle speed. Source: NAFTC.

6

Did You Know?

Idling a vehicle may allow for the comforts of heat or A/C and the operation of accessories such as radios or other multimedia, but when your vehicle is idling, your fuel economy when not in motion is 0 mpg.

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Basic History of Idle Reduction

ICEs in use since the early 20 th century

Old = mechanical carburetors/fuel pumping systems

New = electronic throttle, high pressure fuel system, electronic fuel injection

Idling vehicles produce no propulsion but still consume fuel and produce emissions

8

Pre-heating, pre-cooling for comfort

Idling while waiting for traffic, etc.

Load from accessories

Long-haul trucks may idle up to 300 nights a year

Non-driving time requirements

9

Policies for Idle Reduction

U.S. EPA emissions and CAFE fuel economy standards

More attention is being paid to emissions produced from idling

Federal tax exemptions for heavy-duty trucks

New vehicles and aftermarket products

Clean Cities program, SmartWay

Transportation, Clean School Bus USA partnership, and others

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Figure 2: States that have policies or incentives to implement idle reduction technologies. Source: AFDC.

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State enacted policies and idle limitations

Local and city government regulations

School bus emissions at idle

Amount of fuel used per idle time

Reduced idling = immediate fuel savings

Figure 3: School bus at idle, consuming fuel and producing emissions. Source: EPA.

12

Did You Know?

Idling a car for one hour consumes about one gallon of fuel.

Source: http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/myths/idling.html.

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Idle Reduction Today

Cleaner, healthier planet

Improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions

Innovative technologies, specialized technicians

Technologies and strategies implemented by both manufacturers and consumers

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Consumer Idle Reduction Strategies

Any reduction in idle time can save fuel and reduce emissions

Idling during in-city driving

Avoiding congested areas

Limit idle time for convenience

Immediate fuel savings

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Manufacturer Idle Reduction

New technologies, improved fuel economy, and reduced emissions

Light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle fuel savings

Idle shutoff functions, mild hybrid technologies

APUs for long haul trucks

TSE implementation

Figure 4: Driver in a long haul truck utilizing a type of

TSE. Source: IdleAir.

16

Did You Know?

Truck idling uses approximately 3 billion gallons of fuel per year

Approximately 1 billion gallons for overnight idling

Roughly 2 billion gallons for workday idling

Every hour a truck idles unnecessarily is equivalent to about 8 to 10 miles of on-road driving.

Source: Argonne National Laboratory.

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Why Consider Idle Reduction?

Personal and environmental health

Financial and fuel economy improvements

Technologies manufacturing and service

Implementation by both consumers and fleets

Immediate reductions in fuel consumption and emissions

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Advantages of Idle Reduction

Reduced fuel consumption

Fewer vehicle emissions

Lower operating costs

Increased engine life

No-cost implementation

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Additional Points to Consider

Possible capital investment

Personal convenience may be compromised

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Benefits of Idle Reduction

Health and environmental benefits

Reduced fuel costs - economics

Reduced dependence on foreign oil – energy security

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Health Benefits

Combustion of fuels produces harmful emissions

Creation of PM

Respiratory and cardiovascular complications

Idle reduction reduces vehicle emissions

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Environmental Benefits

Emissions negatively affect the environment

GHG formation, climate change

Idle reduction = reduced emissions

23

Economic Benefits

Excessive idling = unnecessary financial loss

Industry opportunity for implementation of idle reduction technologies

Reduced consumption = financial benefit for all drivers

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Energy Security Benefits

Reduced idling = reduced fuel consumption

Reduced fuel consumption = reduced reliance on foreign oil

Nearly half of all petroleum used in the

U.S. is imported

25

Upon completing this lesson, can you:

Describe what idle reduction is?

Explain the basic history of idle reduction strategies and technologies?

Describe how implementing idle reduction strategies will benefit health and the environment?

Explain the economic benefits associated with idle reduction?

Describe what energy security is and how idle reduction affects it?

26

Test Your Knowledge

1.

2.

3.

4.

True or False: Engine speeds of idling engines under no load are typically 600-

1,000 rotations per minute (rpm).

What does the acronym TSE stand for and how does it relate to idle reduction?

A passenger car that is idles for one hour consumes about ___ gallon(s) of fuel.

True or False: Vehicles that are idling while not moving have a fuel economy of 0 miles per gallon (MPG).

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Lesson 2:

Idle Reduction Policies,

Infrastructure, and

Sustainability

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Objectives

Describe federal, state, and local policies on idle reduction

Explain how both manufacturers and consumers can implement idle reduction strategies

Explain the need for distribution of knowledge and possible infrastructure changes to assist in idle reduction

Describe how idle reduction relates to sustainability and cost efficiency

29

Idle Reduction Policies

Reduced allowable emissions from vehicles

CAFE fuel economy standards for passenger cars and trucks

New goals implemented by the Obama administration

Fuel economy gains of more than 5% per year

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Figure 5: New standards for light-duty vehicles in order to meet 2016 compliance. Source: EPA.

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Figure 6: Compression-ignition engine emissions limits. Source: EPA.

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Testing Procedures

Pre-defined test cycles for light- and heavyduty vehicles

Dynamometer vehicle testing

Fuel waste and emissions from overnight idling

New technology development

Strict standards and timelines

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Figure 7: Test cycles for fuel economy and emissions of light-duty vehicles. Source: EPA.

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Federal Idle Reduction Programs

Clean Cities program

Reduce petroleum consumption

Offers educational workshops, grants, program development assistance

SmartWay

Partnership between government and industry

Financing options for fuel-saving and emission reducing technologies

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Clean School Bus USA

Partnership between EPA and private organizations

Reduce children’s exposure to school bus emissions

Limit school bus idling

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For more information on Clean Cities initiatives in your area, visit: www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities .

For more information on a SmartWay program, visit: http://www.epa.gov/smartway/index.htm

To learn more about another DOE idle reduction project, visit: http://www.the-step-project.org

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State Programs

Individual regulations and incentives

Incentives often based on vehicle weight

Truck stop electrification (TSE) development

Maximum idling time per hour

Specific grant programs for idle reduction implementation

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To learn about other states laws, visit http:/www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/state .

And http://www.atri-online.org/2012/01/01/idlingregulations-compendium/ .

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Local

Maximum idle time in public places

Idle time may vary by location, proximity to certain businesses

Figure 8:

Idle-Free Tennessee Program. Source: East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition.

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Manufacturer Implementation

New technologies help light- duty manufacturers reach CAFE/EPA standards

Light- and medium-duty mild hybrid implementation

Heavy-duty idle timer use

Auxiliary power units (APUs)

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Consumer Implementation

Purchase of new technologies/vehicles

Understand how the vehicle operates

Minimum warm-up/cool-down times

Planning trips/avoiding traffic congestion

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Distribution and Infrastructure

Distribution of Knowledge

Strategies are implemented on vehicles that are already in use

Easily adapted for advanced technology vehicles

Immediate fuel and emissions reductions

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Infrastructure

Some strategies requires no infrastructure development

Mild hybrid, HEV, EV production already in place

Heavy-duty sector development

APUs, TSE (possibility for up to 5,000 TSE sites)

Utilization of electricity over petroleum

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Sustainability

Completely sustainable practices

Small changes can affect fuel consumption

Less dependence on foreign oil supplies

Remember overnight commercial truck idling consumes about 1 billion gallons a fuel a year

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Cost Efficiency

Immediate fuel savings

Strategies can be implemented at no cost

Technology investment may be offset by tax incentives and fuel savings

The Future of Idle Reduction

Necessary part of achieving higher fuel economy ratings

Evolution from options to standard equipment

46

Upon completing this lesson, can you:

Describe federal, state, and local policies on idle reduction?

Explain how both manufacturers and consumers can implement idle reduction strategies?

Explain the need for distribution of knowledge and possible infrastructure changes to assist in idle reduction?

Describe how idle reduction relates to sustainability and cost efficiency?

47

1.

2.

3.

4.

Test Your Knowledge

True or False: The Clean Cities and SmartWay transportation programs are examples of federal programs that address benefits of idle reduction.

In West Virginia, a heavy-duty vehicle may not operate more than ________ minutes within a sixty minute period.

The EPA estimates that overnight idling of long- haul trucks consumes 1 (thousand, million, billion) gallons of fuel annually.

True or False: Additions in TSE could provide up to

64 electrified truck stops nationwide.

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Lesson 3:

Idle Reduction

Technologies and

Strategies

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Objectives

Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the heavy-duty vehicle sector

Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the light- and medium-duty vehicle sector

Describe the safety, performance, and maintenance of vehicles that utilize idle reduction technologies

Describe some of the vehicles available with idle reduction technologies already in place

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Heavy-Duty Idle Reduction

Long-haul commercial freight carriers

Rest/driving requirements set by the U.S.

DOT

Average truck idles more than 1,400 hours annually

Technology, strategy developments to reduce idle time

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Strategies

No up-front implementation cost

State-enforced anti-idling laws

Bus loading/unloading

Warm-up and cool-down procedures may require idle time

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Technologies

Truck Stop Electrification (TSE)

Electrified parking spots at truck stops

Enable drivers to meet rest requirements without idling

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To find an electrified truck stop in your region, the DOE hosts a site locator searchable by zip code. It can be found at http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/tse .

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Technologies

Truck Stop Electrification (TSE)

Single-system vs. dual-system

Single-system offers heating, A/C, electricity, internet, cable

Unit is placed in passenger window

Offers connectivity and comfort features

Dual-system requires onboard equipment for each truck

Driver plugs truck in to the electrical outlet to power onboard equipment – known as “shore power”

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Figure 9:

Long-haul trucks using truck stop electrification. Source: EPA.

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Technologies

Onboard Equipment

Powered by external electrical source or existing fuel system

Use is more efficient than allowing the engine to idle

Onboard Heating

Direct-fired = small furnaces

Consumes only a small amount of fuel per hour

Coolant heaters = heat transfer system

Can be used to heat cabin and warm engine in cold climates

Figure 10: Direct-fired heater installed in a long haul truck. Source: DOT.

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Technologies

Onboard Cooling

Thermal storage, battery-electric air conditioners

Thermal storage: energy is stored during normal operation, used at a later time to cool cab

Battery-electric air conditioners: powered by onboard batteries that are charged at truck stops

Both produce zero local emissions

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Technologies

Auxiliary Power Units (APUs)

Small vehicle-mounted

 systems

Electrical generator powered

 by an internal combustion engine

Heat recapture from ICE

Powers accessories, HVAC

Rechargeable battery packs

Figure 11: Auxiliary power unit attached behind the fuel tank of a long haul truck. Source: IdleAir.

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Light- and Medium-Duty Idle Reduction

Over 234 million light-duty vehicles registered in 2010

Implementation of idle reduction strategies can have drastic effects

Enormous potential for reduced fuel consumption

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Strategies

Provide immediate fuel savings

Modern vehicle warm-up functions

Extended idling situations

Engine operation at higher speeds

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Technologies

Research is being conducted

Advancements help reduce fuel consumption

Block Heaters

Use grid power to maintain engine temperature

Operate on standard 120VAC outlet

Reduces ‘necessary’ idle time

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Mild Hybrids

Idle shutoff function

Small battery pack and motor/generator (MG)

Used only for short amounts of time

Reduce idle time by shutting ICE off

Other Idle Shutoff Technologies

Advanced engine technologies reduce amount of energy needed to restart engine

Conventional starters

Micro-hybrids

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Vehicle Maintenance, Performance, and

Safety

Similar if not the same as conventional vehicles

Regular scheduled maintenance

Same performance, reduced fuel consumption

Same safety systems as conventional vehicles

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Upon completing this lesson, can you:

Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the heavy-duty vehicle sector?

Explain some of the technologies and strategies that are utilized for idle reduction in the light-duty vehicle sector?

Describe the safety, performance, and maintenance of vehicles that utilize idle reduction technologies?

Describe some of the vehicles available with idle reduction technologies already in place?

65

Test Your Knowledge

1.

2.

3.

4.

True or False: The only idle reduction option for light-duty consumers is to purchase new mild hybrid vehicles.

What does the acronym APU stand for?

_____________ heaters are like small furnaces that can be used to heat the cabs of long-haul trucks.

True or False: Commercial truckers are required to take minimum amounts of rest time from driving each day.

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