A Snapshot of Aid for Trade on the Ground in Africa

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African Case Stories: A Snapshot of
Aid for Trade on the Ground in
Africa
Stephen Karingi
Regional Integration, Infrastructure and Trade
Division
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Contents
• Aid for Trade Flows to Africa
• Overview of the Case Stories Sample
• African Case Stories
• Lessons and Emerging Best Practices
• Conclusions
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
AfT Flows to Africa
AfT to Africa enjoys continuing growth, with no apparent fall off
following the global economic crisis and no signs of diversion from
other ODA.
AfT and ODA Commitments to Africa
57.1
billions of constant 2009 US$
60
58.8
55.1
48.8
50
41.0
40
30
16.5
20
13.8
7.6
9.1
11.3
10
0
2002-05 avg.
2006
Total AfT
2007
2008
2009
Total ODA
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
AfT Flows to Africa
What’s more, Africa now supersedes Asia as the principal regional
recipient of AfT.
AfT Commitments by Region
20
2002-05
avg.
2006
18.8
billions of constant 2009 US$
18
16.5
16
15.4
13.8
14
12.8
12.2
12
2008
11.3
2009
10
8
2007
13.3
9.1
7.6
6
4
3.1
1.7 2.0
2
2.3
1.9
1.6
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.4
0.2 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3
0
Africa
America
Asia
Europe
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Oceania
AfT Flows to Africa
Economic infrastructure continues to enjoy the largest share of
AfT to Africa, closely followed by building productive capacity.
AfT by Broad Sectors
8
7,2
7,0
7
6,5
Billions of Contant 2009 US$
6,4
6
5
4,8
4,1
4,0
4
3,6
3,5
3,8
3,7
3,6
3,1
3,2
3
4,3
3,5
3,1
2,6
2
1
0,29
0,41
0,17
0,25
0,30
0,12
0
2002-05
average
Com m itm ents
2007
Commitments
2009
0,23
0,17
2007
Disbursements
7th Ordinary
AU Ministersand
of Trade,
November adjustment
2011, Accra, Ghana
TradeSession
Policyof&the
Regulations
Trade-related
Building Productive Capacity
Economic Infrastructure
0,18
2009
AfT Flows to Africa
The magnitude of AfT commitments varies massively across African
countries…
Top 5 Recipients
Bottom 5 Recipients
(2009 Commitments, constant US$)
(2009 Commitments, constant US$)
Nigeria (US$1.3bn)
Algeria (US$13m)
Uganda (US$1bn)
Libya (US$8.2)
Kenya (US$962m)
Botswana (US$4.7m)
Ethiopia (US$884m)
Seychelles (US$2.3m)
Tanzania (US$881m)
Equatorial Guinea (US$1.1m)
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
AfT Flows to Africa
… The same is true for the different regions across Africa…
AfT commitments to Africa, millions of constant 2009 US$
2002-05
2006
2007
2008
2009
2006-09
COMESA (19 countries)
3149
3335
4694
3640
5548
4304
ECOWAS (15 countries)
1704
1763
2833
3609
4873
3270
SADC (14 countries)
2199
1878
2589
3332
3144
2736
CEMAC (7 countries)
324
567
518
380
617
521
EAC (5 countries)
1115
1366
2497
1981
3404
2312
ECCAS (15 countries)
908
869
1233
820
1493
1104
UMA (5 countries)
781
1109
746
2387
1142
1346
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
AfT Flows to Africa
… But the picture is different for AfT analysed on a per capita basis
AfT Commitments per capita
2002-05
avg.
2006
2007
2008
2009
2006-09
avg.
G5 Economies
4.3
5.6
4.3
10.8
7.4
7.1
LDCs
9.8
9.2
12.8
12.9
16.0
12.8
Non-LDCs
5.9
7.6
8.5
12.1
11.4
9.9
Land-Locked
Countries
9.4
9.7
15.3
11.8
19.2
14.1
Non land-locked
Countries
7.3
8.0
9.2
12.7
12.1
10.5
Island Economies
22.8
12.3
15.7
26.6
15.7
17.6
Non-Island
Economies
7.5
8.3
10.5
12.2
13.7
11.2
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Overview of the Case
Stories Sample
60
Of the 269 case stories
submitted to the WTO, 114
pertain to Africa.
51
50
37
40
30
20
10
1
0
Donor
The 37 case stories from
member States came from 31
different countries, and 8
regional entities also
contributed.
14
11
Partner
Country
WAEMU
17%
REC
SouthSouth
Other
AfDB
8%
CEN-SAD
8%
UNECA
17%
ECOWAS
26%
SADC
8% SACAU
8%
Northern
Corridor
8%
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Overview of the Case
Stories Sample
32 of the 33 African LDCs were cited in at least one case story.
18
Submitted about LDCs
16
2
14
Submitted by LDCs
2
1
12
1
1
4
4
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Zambia
Uganda
Togo
Sudan
Sierra Leone
Senegal
Sao Tome and Principe
Rwanda
10
9
1
Somalia
8
1
Niger
Mali
2
8
12
10 1
5
Multiple
3
Mozambique
5
Mauritania
2
Malawi
4
Madagascar
1
2
Liberia
4
Lesotho
5
10
Guinea Bissau
1
1
Guinea
1
4
Gambia
6
Eritrea
1
2
Djibouti
1
2
Congo DR
5
1
Comoros
1
2
Chad
Burundi
Burkina Faso
Benin
1
1
Angola
0
6
Central African Republic
4
1
1
Ethiopia
13 13 1
6
16
3 14
Tanzania
8
2
2
1
10
African Case Stories
Relative to its small share of AfT flows, Case Stories on Trade
Policy and Regulations received a disproportionate share of
those submitted.
• Trade Education and/or Training: Focus on strengthening
negotiation capacities. Training of Trainers featured heavily
• Trade policy and Administrative Management: Characterized by
the necessary regulatory or procedural changes required to
accommodate trade reforms emanating from WTO commitments
e.g. Gambia and the West African Quality Programme
• Trade Facilitation: Emphasis on the regional integration
dimension of trade facilitation e.g. Zambia and Zimbabwe on the
Chirundu One Stop Border Post
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Case Stories Submitted by
African Member States
Recurring issues in the Building Productive Capacities categories
include:
• Linking trade to poverty reduction targets
• Food security considerations
• Increasing market access or export diversification
• Standardization of procedures and production
• Promotion of lucrative activities with high value addition
potential.
Morocco’s National Programme of Rural Transport, supported by
the AfDB and AFD, was the only case study on Economic
Infrastructure submitted by an African member State.
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Case Stories Submitted by
African Member States
Several case stories on Processes concentrated on the various
stages on EIF. Other member States’ case stories include:
• Gabon’s experience mainstreaming trade
• A technical assistance project led by the ITC to promote trade in
services in Niger
• Mauritius’ struggle to attract AfT to support trade reforms and
adjustment costs
• the ECOWAS Economic Partnership Agreement Development
Programme
The UNECA’s case story documenting on the impact of AfT on
specific binding constraints was a notable contribution on AfT
Appoaches for the whole continent.
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Lessons and Emerging Best
Practices
Factors of success cited in AfT case stories:
30
26
25
21
23
22
21
20
15
17
14
12
10
8
10
5
5
4 4
2
1
6
5
3
4
3
1
1
7
6
4
1
1
0
Commitment of
partner to implement
lessons learnt
Effective national
coordination or
implementation
mechanisms
Private sector
engagment and
commitment
Ownership by partner
Commitment of
country (e.g. political
donor (political,
commitment,
financial, flexibility in
imlementation etc)
7th Ordinary Session
AU Ministers
Trade,South-South
November 2011,
Accra, Ghana
Donorof the
Partner
Country of REC
Other
None reported
Lessons and Emerging Best
Practices
Factors posing problems in AfT case stories:
28
30
26
25
25
20
18
20
14
15
10
8
10
5
5
2
8
5
5
3
1
1
9
8
4
1
4
1
2
7
6
3
5
2
3
0
No local
Project
Problems on
Project
Difficulties in Inadequate Ownership,
private sector sustainablility partner
management Monitoring
funding
alignment or
ownership or
issues
country side difficulties
and
conditionality
engagement
Evaluation
problems
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Donor
Partner Country
REC
South-South
Other
None
reported
Lessons and Emerging Best
Practices
AfT case stories report impacts in many areas, although the
number of case stories (45 of 114) not reporting any impact is
concerning.
AfT case stories reporting on impacts of AfT
50
45
45
40
35
30
26
24
25
19
20
15
19
16
14
15
10
10
5
2
0
Domestic Export growth Foreign
Gender
Positive
Positive
Poverty Employment EconomicNone reported
investment
investmentempowermentimpact on impact on reduction creation
growth
mobilized
mobilized
MDGs regional
trade/
7th Ordinary
Session of the AU Ministers
of Trade,
November 2011, Accra, Ghana
integration
Conclusions
• The momentum of AfT supplies to Africa continues to be
maintained with no signs of diversion of resources from nonAfT
• A few countries and regions appear to receive a disproportionate
share, but per capita AfT tells another story
• The focus of disbursements has been on economic
infrastructure but a great majority of the case stories focus on
other AfT categories
• Member States’ case stories do not fully reflect regional aspects
of AfT
• Case stories from regional organizations prioritize interventions
to address supply side constraints with a regional integration
dimension
• Widely accepted M&E mechanisms need further development
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
Thank you for your kind attention
Stephen Karingi
[email protected]
www.uneca.org/atpc
7th Ordinary Session of the AU Ministers of Trade, November 2011, Accra, Ghana
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