Environment Protection Requirements for Small Hydro Schemes European Hydropower Summit Bucharest – 28 February 2012 David Williams British Hydropower Association Environment Protection Requirements For Small Hydro Schemes Based on UK Experience Scope of Presentation: 1. UK Hydro – overview 2. “Environmental” opposition to hydropower 3. Creating a balance 4. Environmental Guidance for Hydro Schemes UK Hydro – overview History of hydro development To Mid 1800’s – Waterpower - Private UK Hydro – overview History of hydro development Mid 1800’s - Private UK Hydro – overview History of hydro development 1940’s – Public - CEGB and NOSHEB UK Hydro – overview History of hydro development From 1990’s - Private New Refurbished Micro UK Hydro – existing and potential Types of Hydro in UK • • • • • Pumped Storage Storage hydro Run of river hydro Micro hydro Energy recovery from water supply and water treatment • Refurbishment/replacement and upgrade of old plant UK Hydro – existing and potential Present Hydro Capacity in UK • Conventional hydro – 1.5 GW • Pumped storage – 2.8 GW UK Hydro – existing and potential Potential England & Wales EA Hydro mapping study 2010 26,000 barriers 4,000 “win-win” hydro / fish pass ~ 600 MW DECC / WG study 250 MW UK Hydro – existing and potential Potential Scotland Scottish Government studies 2008 & 2009 1200 schemes 1200 MW UK Hydro – existing and potential Potential new Hydro Capacity in UK Pumped Storage Conventional Hydro Scotland England & Wales N Ireland Water supply and water treatment 1 GW 1200 MW 250 MW ~10 MW ~40 MW TOTAL new potential 2.5 GW of which conventional hydro is 1.5 GW Doubling existing conventional hydro capacity UK Hydro – overview Renewables Incentives: Renewable Obligation (RO) Feed-in Tariff (FiT) ROC Banding Review 2011 FiT Review 2012 UK Hydro – overview Four Countries “Environmental” Opposition to Hydropower Campaign organisation Only aims – • Protect Fish Stocks • Increase number of anglers “fishing for fun & in competitions” 4 Campaigns against hydropower in 2011 Widely quoted Legal arm – “Fish Legal” “Environmental” Opposition to Hydropower Kills Fish Inhibits movement of fish Destroys fish habitat Has a cumulative impact throughout a river system “Environmental” Opposition to Hydropower Poor regulation Little addition to UK electricity production Massive returns “The EA is licencing hundreds of schemes without knowing what the impact is. In Europe, they’re busily tearing out ugly fishmincing machines they put in 10 years ago, having realised the error of their ways. If hydropower were generating 30% of energy requirements, we would be more accommodating, but the reality is you could just switch off a few lights and achieve the same effect” Angling Trust Creating a balance Hydropower Environmental Impact Available Flow Fish Protection: • Fish Passes • Fish screening • Eel regulations Other ecology protection Flood risk Creating a balance Hydropower Environmental Impact Regulatory problems • Increased numbers of applications • Local views • Inconsistency in consenting process Creating a balance Hydropower Benefits • • • • • • • Renewable energy source – carbon savings National targets Security of supply Long lasting Developed technology Highest energy payback ratio Etc,etc……… Environmental Guidance for Hydro Schemes Environmental Guidance for Hydro Schemes Good Practice Guidelines England & Wales History: 2003 - UK Cabinet Office sees issues with WFT 2009 - GPG v1 issued 2010 – Angling & fisheries groups mount opposition Environmental Guidance for Hydro Schemes History (continued): 2011 - March: New Working Group established, involving Angling Trust and Salmon & Trout Assn 2011 - July: GPG public consultation launched 2012 - March : GPG v2 issued ? Environmental Guidance for Hydro Schemes The regulator has the impossible task of finding the right balance. The Environment Agency can never please everybody …. ….but they can upset everybody! “Regulation needs to be: Consistent, Accountable, Proportionate, Targeted, Transparent.” HYDROPOWER Here to stay!