Eco-industrial parks - City-Region Studies Centre

Ecologically sustainable
industrial parks: An
Raymond Cote
Professor Emeritus
and Senior Fellow
Eco-Efficiency Centre
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
Presented at University of Alberta
September 2010
Outline of presentation
Rationale for a new model
EIP or IS models
EIP standards
Characteristics of EIPs
Guidance for planners and designers
“The world we have created today as a result of
our thinking thus far, has problems which cannot
be solved by thinking the way we thought when
we created them.” Albert Einstein
Why ecological sustainability?
– “Over the past 50 years, humans have
changed ecosystems more rapidly and
extensively than in any comparable period of
time in human history
– This has resulted in a substantial and largely
irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth
– The changes that have been made to
ecosystems have contributed to substantial net
gains in human well-being and economic
– But these gains have been achieved at growing
costs that, unless addressed, will substantially
diminish the benefits that future generations
obtain from ecosystems.”
UN Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
Status of Ecosystem Services
UN Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
Our current industrial system
appears to have been designed to:
 “ put billions of pounds of toxic materials into the air,
water and soil every year,
 produce materials so dangerous that they will
require constant vigilance from future generations,
 result in gigantic amounts of waste,
 put valuable materials in holes all over the planet,
where they cannot be easily retrieved,
 require thousands of complex regulations – not to
keep people and natural systems safe, but rather to
keep them from being poisoned too quickly,
 measure productivity by how few people are
 create prosperity by digging up or cutting down
natural resources and then burying or burning them,
 erode the diversity of species and cultural practices.”
McDonough and Braungart,2002
Nature as model
Renewable energy is the main source of power
for living systems
In natural systems, there is no waste in the
sense of matter that cannot be recycled or
absorbed constructively
Concentrated toxic materials are generated and
used locally
A major portion of the energy flows in a system
are consumed in decomposition processes that
make nutrients available
Ecosystems are resilient and relatively stable
because of the biodiversity of species organized
in complex web of relationships
Each individual of a species in an ecosystem acts
independently, yet its activity patterns mesh
cooperatively with those of other species
Industrial ecology
The study of the physical, chemical, and
biological interactions and interrelationships both
within and between industrial and biological
systems. National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education
Industrial ecology is ecological in that it (1)
places human activity -- industry in the very
broadest sense -- in the larger context of the
biophysical environment from which we obtain
resources and into which we place our wastes,
and (2) looks to the natural world for models of
highly efficient use of resources, energy and
Journal of Industrial Ecology
Industrial parks: ‘a large tract of land, sub-divided, and
Eco-industrial parks: A short form for ecologically sustainable
Industrial symbiosis: Traditionally separate industries
By-product synergy: A synonym for industrial symbiosis
developed for the use of several firms simultaneously,
distinguished by its shareable infrastructure and close proximity of
firms’ (Peddle 1993).
industrial park. In addition to satisfying the definition of an
industrial park it is “a community of businesses that cooperate
with each other and with the local community to efficiently share
resources (information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure
and local habitat), leading to economic gains, gains in
environmental quality, and equitable enhancement of human
resources for the business and local community” (PCSD, 1996)
engaged in a collective approach involving physical exchanges of
materials, energy, water and/or by-products (Chertow, 2000).
EIP models in the literature
Kalundborg model – multiple sectors and sizes of
industries where by-products are exchanged (
also sector based)
Burnside model – multiple sectors of SMEs where
“scavenger and decomposer” companies cycle
materials, products and by-products
Resource recovery model – The emphasis of the
park is on recovery and recycling of wastes
The Kalundborg model
The Burnside model
The Resource Recovery model
 None
of these are EIPs, in my view,
as they focus largely on industrial
 They incorporate few other ecological
functions in their design and
Environmental Management Continuum for Industrial Parks
and business
within a
Industrial Park
A labelling
developed in
France to
recognize an
set of
in industrial
parks and
Clusters of
providers of
Clusters of
working to
pollution and
waste outputs
Industrial Clusters
Clusters of
such that the
of one
become the
inputs or
materials for
businesses or
to minimize
waste and
dissipation of
Clusters of
taking account of
ecological limits,
using resourceefficient
buildings and
purchases and a
balance of
scavengers &
EIP standards
 Port
of Cape Charles, Virginia
 Koenig’s criteria for Thai EIPs
 Devens EcoStar criteria
 Chinese EIP standard
 Oree’s PALME label and guide
 LEED standard for neighborhood
Innovista EIP, Hinton, Alberta
Ecology as central organizing theme
Community linkages
Distributed, renewable energy systems
Waste as resource
Strategic collaboration among businesses
Efficient and effective infrastructure
Efficient buildings
Integrated ecological design principles
Siting and building orientation
Landscaping using indigenous plants
Energy systems based on renewable sources
Water, stormwater and wastewater systems designed for
recovery and reuse
Building design and materials
Recycling of materials
Other Canadian initiatives
Fort McMurray TaigaNova EI park, Alberta
 Kaizer Meadows eco-business park,N.S.
 Debert eco-industrial park, N.S.
 Ross EIP Regina, Sask. (transforming)
 Pearson eco-business zone, Ont.
 Ontario East Wood Centre and EIP, Ont.
Characteristics of an EIP
Cote and Cohen-Rosenthal (1997) suggested some characteristics for
an industrial park operating as an ecosystem: I
 planning with the ecological capacity of the area in mind,
paying particular attention to the assimilative capacity of the air,
water (surface and ground), and connectivity;
 energy production based increasingly on renewable
resources, and at least increase the efficiency of current energy
production and use through cogeneration and district heating;
 buildings designed and built to optimize conservation of
heat and water while enabling disassembly for reuse, and
recycling at the end-of-life;
 landscaping using indigenous resources and designed to
support building heating and cooling;
 industries and businesses selected based in part on their
compatibility for symbiosis;
 management encouraging a web of businesses involving not
only producers and consumers, but also scavengers and
decomposers to support cycling of materials;
 redundancy in materials sources built into the structure of the
 water recovered, cleaned and reused;
 a common information management system which would
facilitate networking.
Designing eco-industrial parks: key
An appreciation of and restoration of the area’s
ecological functions – ecology
A survey of the nature of companies – diversity
A survey of flows of materials and energy and
generation of by-products– industrial
Techniques for improving industrial, commercial
and institutional uses of energy and materials –
resource efficiency
Techniques for reducing waste disposal–
recovery, remanufacturing and recycling
Tools for assessing and using alternative
processes, products – life cycle analysis and
design for environment
Planning and design
The characteristics of an EIP have not yet been
agreed upon by all agencies, researchers and
 In my view, they require an ecological or
systemic approach -this means designing an
industrial park which does not compromise or
result in the loss of ecological services but rather
incorporates them into planning and design.
 This is particularly important for regulating and
supporting services but could also involve
provisioning services.
Infrastructure examples
Where natural wetlands are not available, build engineered
aquatic ecosystems which use sunlight, bacteria, plants,
and other aquatic life to break down toxics, concentrate
metals and treat organic material
Use ground source heat
pumps, solar walls for
space heating and install
small wind turbines for
Collect rainwater and
snowmelt for fire
fighting, irrigating plants,
flushing toilets and where
possible, process water
Develop composting for
landscaping resources and
nutrient cycling
Identify local champions and get
commitment for the long term
 Stakeholders need to be engaged early &
throughout the process
 Use expertise from various disciplines,
especially ecologists and ecological
 Applying ecological thinking to
infrastructure eg water supply,
wastewater treatment, energy generation,
transportation, solid waste & recycling
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Appendix 1
Guidance for developing EIPs
There is no shortage of guidance documents for the
development and operation of eco-industrial
parks. Some are:
Designing and Operating Industrial Parks as Ecosystems,
Cote et al Canada. 1994.
Discovering Industrial Ecology: An Executive Briefing and
Sourcebook, Lowe et al. United States. 1997
Eco-industrial Park Handbook.for Asian Developing Nations.
Lowe et al.. Asian Development Bank and Indigo
Development. 2001.
Environmental Management for Industrial Estates.
Information and training resources UNEP. 2001
Planning for sustainable industry development. Roberts,B.
Australian Planning Institute. 2001
Eco-industrial Strategies: Unleashing Synergy between
Economic Development and the Environment. CohenRosenthal et al. United States. 2003
Mettre en oeuvre une démarche d’écologie industrielle sur
un parc d’activités.. Oree, France. 2008.