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(Salix viminalis)
Prepared by: Józef Pyrczak
Types of biomas used to produce
• Wood and its waste, including energy crops,
• straw and grain,
• agricultural products and waste,
• organic industrial waste , e.g.
brewing industry residues, paper industry
Types of willow found in Poland
Trees – Goat Willow, White Willow, Crack
Willow, Hoary Willow (Salix eleagnos).
Shrubs – Goat Willow, Common Osier, Almond
Willow, Grey Willow, Eared Willow, Rosemary
Leaf Willow, Purple Willow.
Features of a Common Osier –
select wood willow:
• very rapid biomass growth,
• increased resistance to vermin and diseases
• high energy value of wood.
Salix viminalis energy willow plantation
Part of plantation ready for harvesting
Plantation diversification – improved resistance to vermin and diseases
Site selection and soil preparation
• Most advantageous conditions are provided by 3rd, 4th
and 5th quality class soils
• 5th quality class provides lower yields.
• Dry sandy soils (6th class) are not suitable for growing
energy willow.
• Most advantageous level of groundwater
during the Summer for sandy soils is 100-300 cm ,
and 160 – 190 cm for clay.
• Willow often dies away in cases of long term waterlogging
exceeding 2 weeks
Site preparation
• Grubbing and mowing existing floral cover.
• Ploughing and rotory cultivating.
• Application of a “total” herbicide.
• Adjusting soil pH (pH 5,5 -7) and composition to
• Deep ploughing.
Directly prior to planting:
• harrow
• application of soil-applied herbicide (Casoron, Faworyt,
or Lontrel).
4 –row planter to be operated by 4 people
Willow unrooted cuttings for vegetative propagation
Correctly prepared unrooted cuttings
should satisfy following
• length 20 – 25 cm and thickness 5 – 12 mm
• have at least 5 “asleep” shoots,
• healthy, clean and of appropriate moisture,
• be kept in water for up to 48 hours prior to
Planting with 4 –row planter
Planting with 2–row planter
Planting efficiency
• Manual planting by 10 people – 1 ha in 8 – 10
hours of work, providing 25k cuttings
per 1 hectare.
• Mechanical planting depending on the type of
the planting equipment
4 people – 0,8 do 1,2 ha in 1 hour of work,
providing 25k cuttings per 1 hectare.
Newly planted energy willow plantation
Recommended planting design
for small plantations (32k of cuttings/1ha)
Recommended planting design
for big plantations (18k -24k of cuttings/1 ha)
Young shoots from planted willow cuttings
Upkeep of inter-rows
Chemical weed killing
(Recommended pesticides and dosing for willow plantations)
Inputs doses
Willow regrowth
3 years growth schedule:
1st year 25 - 28 %
2nd year 31 - 35 %
3rd year 40 - 41 %
Yield of dry wood:
• harvest every year – 14.81 t/ha per year
• harvest every 2 years – 16.07 t/ha per year
• harvest every 3 years – 21.47 t/ha per year,
On average 17.45 t/ha dry mass per year.
“Class” combine harvester
Direct chip harvesting from willow plantation efficiency up to
1 hectare /hour of work
Storing willow in sheafs
Machinery for two stages biomass harvest
Two stage harvest of biomass from willow plantation
Natural moisture of biomass
• At the end of vegetation period 53-58%.
• In February (Winter) 43-46%.
• In May, June 34-30%.
Dry willow wood chip
Wood chip stored on the field
Pellets from harvested biomass
Basic parameters of willow pellets
(Salix spp.) and sida pallets (Sida
hermaphrodita R.)
Wilgotność (%)
Zawartość popiołu (%)
Ciepło spalania (kJ/kg)
Wartość opałowa (kJ/kg)
Gęstość nasypowa (kg/m3)
Wartość opałowa (GJ/m3)
Thank you.