Willow (Salix viminalis) Prepared by: Józef Pyrczak Types of biomas used to produce energy. • Wood and its waste, including energy crops, • straw and grain, • agricultural products and waste, • organic industrial waste , e.g. brewing industry residues, paper industry waste. Types of willow found in Poland Trees – Goat Willow, White Willow, Crack Willow, Hoary Willow (Salix eleagnos). Shrubs – Goat Willow, Common Osier, Almond Willow, Grey Willow, Eared Willow, Rosemary Leaf Willow, Purple Willow. Features of a Common Osier – select wood willow: • very rapid biomass growth, • increased resistance to vermin and diseases • high energy value of wood. Salix viminalis energy willow plantation Part of plantation ready for harvesting Plantation diversification – improved resistance to vermin and diseases Site selection and soil preparation • Most advantageous conditions are provided by 3rd, 4th and 5th quality class soils • 5th quality class provides lower yields. • Dry sandy soils (6th class) are not suitable for growing energy willow. • Most advantageous level of groundwater during the Summer for sandy soils is 100-300 cm , and 160 – 190 cm for clay. • Willow often dies away in cases of long term waterlogging exceeding 2 weeks Site preparation • Grubbing and mowing existing floral cover. • Ploughing and rotory cultivating. • Application of a “total” herbicide. • Adjusting soil pH (pH 5,5 -7) and composition to requirements. • Deep ploughing. Directly prior to planting: • harrow • application of soil-applied herbicide (Casoron, Faworyt, or Lontrel). 4 –row planter to be operated by 4 people Willow unrooted cuttings for vegetative propagation Correctly prepared unrooted cuttings should satisfy following requirements: • length 20 – 25 cm and thickness 5 – 12 mm • have at least 5 “asleep” shoots, • healthy, clean and of appropriate moisture, • be kept in water for up to 48 hours prior to planting. Planting with 4 –row planter Planting with 2–row planter Planting efficiency • Manual planting by 10 people – 1 ha in 8 – 10 hours of work, providing 25k cuttings per 1 hectare. • Mechanical planting depending on the type of the planting equipment 4 people – 0,8 do 1,2 ha in 1 hour of work, providing 25k cuttings per 1 hectare. Newly planted energy willow plantation Recommended planting design for small plantations (32k of cuttings/1ha) Recommended planting design for big plantations (18k -24k of cuttings/1 ha) Young shoots from planted willow cuttings Upkeep of inter-rows Chemical weed killing (Recommended pesticides and dosing for willow plantations) Inputs doses Willow regrowth 3 years growth schedule: 1st year 25 - 28 % 2nd year 31 - 35 % 3rd year 40 - 41 % Yield of dry wood: • harvest every year – 14.81 t/ha per year • harvest every 2 years – 16.07 t/ha per year • harvest every 3 years – 21.47 t/ha per year, On average 17.45 t/ha dry mass per year. “Class” combine harvester Direct chip harvesting from willow plantation efficiency up to 1 hectare /hour of work Storing willow in sheafs Machinery for two stages biomass harvest Two stage harvest of biomass from willow plantation Natural moisture of biomass • At the end of vegetation period 53-58%. • In February (Winter) 43-46%. • In May, June 34-30%. Dry willow wood chip Wood chip stored on the field Pellets from harvested biomass Basic parameters of willow pellets (Salix spp.) and sida pallets (Sida hermaphrodita R.) Wyszczególnienie Wierzba Ślazowiec Wilgotność (%) 7,5 7,9 Zawartość popiołu (%) 1,38 3,43 Ciepło spalania (kJ/kg) 18708 18247 Wartość opałowa (kJ/kg) 16883 16036 Gęstość nasypowa (kg/m3) 635,6 517,2 Wartość opałowa (GJ/m3) 10,73 8,30 Thank you.