Contribution By Likert UDAY KUMAR BAIRAGI MBA+ Dr. Rensis Likert was a American psychologist. Likert graduated from University Michigan with in economics and sociology in 1922. He received his doctorate in psychology from Columbia University in 1932. During the next decade his work involved the interpretation of surveys and the handling of questionnaires. He joined the staff of U Michigan in 1946, becoming the founding Director of the Institute for Social Research in 1949. Liker's Research University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research and its inception in 1946-1970. Rensis Likert devoted particular attention to research on organizations (1960s-1970s). Research on major corporations around the world. The Research Center for Group Dynamics in 1948. Contribution by Likert Dr. Likert has conduct much on human behavior with organization, particularly in the industrial situation. He has examined different type of Organization and leadership styles, and he asserts that to achieve maximum profitability, goods labor relation and high productivity, ever organization must make optimum use of their human assest. Management system Likert had identified four management system: Exploitive authoritative system Benevolent authoritative system Consultative system Participative (group) system Exploitive authoritative system In this type of management system the job of employees/subordinates is to abide by the decisions made by managers and others with a higher status in the organization. The subordinates do not participate in the decision making. The organization's sole concern is completion of work. Fear and threats may be used to insure completion. No teamwork is involved Benevolent authoritative system Just as in an exploitive authoritative system, decisions are made at the top of the organisation. However, employees are motivated through rewards rather than fear and threats. Information may flow from subordinates to managers, but it is restricted to “what management want to hear”. Consultative system In this type of management system, subordinates are motivated by rewards and a degree of involvement in the decision-making process. Management will constructively use subordinates' ideas and opinions. However, involvement is incomplete, and major decisions are still made by senior management. More information flows from subordinates to management, although it is incomplete and euphemistic. Participative (group) system Management have complete confidence in their subordinates/employees. Communication is free, and subordinates are fully involved in decision making. Subordinates comfortably express opinions and engage in teamwork. Teams are linked together by common members. Likert calls people in more than one group “linking pins”. Employees throughout the organisation feel responsible for achieving the organisation’s objectives. This responsibility is motivational, especially as subordinates are offered economic rewards for achieving organisational goals, which they have participated in setting. Likert’s suggestion for effective management The motivation to work must be fostered by modern principles and techniques, and not by the old system of rewards and threats. Employees must be seen as people who have their own needs, desires and values. Supportive relationships must exist within each work group. These are characterized not by actual support, but by mutual respect. Liker’s Books New Ways of Managing Conflict 1976 (with Jane Gibson Likert) Human organization : its management and value (1967) New patterns of management (1961) Co-editor: Some applications of behavioral research (1957) Biographical details: "In Memoriam: Rensis Likert, 1903-1981". Leslie Kish (1982). The American Statistician, Vol. 36, No. 2: pp. 124–12 References Brewer, J. D. (1968). Review of The Human Organization. American Sociological Review, 33(5), 825-826 Effrat, A. (1968). Review: Democratizing and Producing. Science, 162(3859), 1260-1261. Hall, J. W. (1972). A Comparison of Halpin and Croft's Organizational Climates and Likert and Liker's Organizational Systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(4), 586-590. Huczynski, A.A. and Buchanan, D.A. (2007). Organizational Behaviour. 6th Edition, Pearson Education.