What do we know about terrorist radicalization?
 Mass
How does a government impact the radicalization process at the
individual, group and mass levels?
What strategies are employed by terrorist groups to
mobilize individuals to choose political violence over
alternative means?
How do relatively ordinary, rational individuals justify their
involvement in terrorist organizations and the violence
they commit?
What role do ideological entrepreneurs play in
constructing a social reality?
What framing devices are utilized by these ideological
entrepreneurs? (Mass level: reaction, dehumanization . . .)
Remember ideological themes:
Guevara – Vanguard
Fanon – Violence as necessary
Marighella – Urban warfare
According to Eidelson & Eidelson, What are 5 beliefs
that propel groups toward conflict?
According to Eidelson & Eidelson, What are 5 beliefs that
propel groups toward conflict?
p. 188 – Importance of
in-group validation . . .
- Where in the world of terrorist ideologies do we see these themes
- 4 of these could be classified as “grievances . . .”
- Superiority breeds entitlement; unmet, becomes grievance . . .
Andrew Kidd and Barbara Walter (2006): “Five political
objectives with enduring importance”
Regime change
Territorial change
Policy change
Social control
Status quo maintenance
Remember: terrorism as driven by desire for power to make
(or sometimes prevent) change
What is “The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism”?
What do ethnic terrorist groups have in common?
How do they differ from other terrorist groups?
What does Byman suggest a country should do,
and not do, when dealing with ethnic terrorism?
A central proposition:
Terrorism is the direct result of an individual’s
choice influenced by a combination of factors and
perceptions about the world around them
“The roots of terrorist activity lie in the mind . . . ”
- Gordon McCormick, 2003
We need to understand:
The critical importance of perception, identity, beliefs
The main elements of the relationship between
governance and terrorism
The role that economics, psychology, sociology or other
grievances play in motivating terrorist groups
The ways, means, contexts for ideological resonance
Countering radicalization requires that we:
 Identify places of ideological interpretation, especially where
youth might be exposed to radical ideas (clubs, youth groups,
video games, Internet, religious or educational places, etc.)
 establish a presence inside the places of radicalization in order to
reach the audiences that are being radicalized from within;
 identify interpreters that are recognized as authoritative,
credible and commanding of obedience
 develop the ability to discredit radical ideas as unsupported by
core values; undermine legitimacy
 Identify and support countervailing influences within societies,
communities, families, and other institutions
Think about how you have formed your view of the world,
and your place within it.
Who in your life has influenced your perceptions the
What if your “influencers” were considered “extremists”
by others”? Would you know?