The Testing Process Using Rational Purify.

Rational Purify Overview
Michel Izygon - Jim Helm
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Tool supporting Testing/Reliability Diagnostics
Locate hard to find run-time errors
Start using as soon as code is written
Languages: C, C++,
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Purify Key Features
• Detect following types of errors:
array bounds errrors
accesses through dangling pointer
uninitialized memory read
memory allocation errors
memory leaks
• Provide filtering and detail level customization
• GUI and command line interface
• Integrated with VC++, ClearQuest, TestFactory
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Runtime Debugger Technology
• Two main techniques:
Object Code Insertion:
– Instrumentation of the code happens on the executable file
– Involves the instrumentation of each object file and library by
adding special instructions to every store and read instructions
– Allow to debug even if you don’t have the source code
Source Code Insertion
– Instrumentation of the code happens on the source file
– Involves parsing, analyzing and conveting the original code into a
new equivalent source code. Then Compile the new code.
– Generally more accurate and has access to more information
about the program pointers and meory blocks. Can detect errors
at compile time also.
• Purify uses Object Code Insertion
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Array bounds errors
• Program writes memory past the bounds of an allocated
 example:
• Memory corrupted may be used much later in the program
• Symptom far away from the cause
• Program may behave in an unpredictable way, dependent
upon the values accessed in the memory block corrupted.
• Purify reports Array Bounds Read and Array Bounds Write
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Accesses through dangling pointer
• Access to a freed dynamically allocated block of memory
• Outcome of program is unpredictable:
 if memory block not reallocated, expected value
might still be there, and program seems OK
 if memory block reallocated program might fail,
dependent on timing issues, memory allocation
• Access can be a Read or a Write
• Purify reports Free Memory Read and Free Memory
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Uninitialized memory read
• Access to an allocated block of memory which has not
yet been initialized.
• Outcome of program is unpredictable, depending on the
• If memory contains value remaining from previous
memory use, program will behave erratically
• Purify reports Uninitialized Memory Read
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Memory allocation errors
• Memory allocated with new but freed with free may
cause corruption of heap structures.
• If these structures are accessed, program can fail.
• Attempt to free a local variable on the stack might
succeed and corrupt local variables or function return.
• Purify reports Freeing Mismatched Memory and Freeing
Invalid Memory
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Memory leaks
• Memory allocated but never freed, and for which no
pointers exist.
• Memory blocks cannot be used nor freed, and occupy
address space.
• Performance of the program degrades and eventually it
fails from lack of memory
• Purify reports Memory Leaks
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
Other Features
Filtering Messages
Comparing program runs
Just in time debugging
API functions
Submit Change Request to ClearQuest directly from
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
• Purify can detect memory corruption errors, but only in
dynamic memory.
• Purify does not detect corruption on the stack or in static
memory at all, because the fence technique only works
for dynamic memory.
CSCI 4931 - Rational Purify
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