Storytelling-in-secondary

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STORYTELLING IN SECONDARY
SCHOOLS
MAJA JERKOVIĆ
SESSION OUTLINE
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WHAT IS STORYTELLING?
LEARNING THROUGH STORIES
STORYTELLING TO TEENAGERS
STORIES FOR UPPER GRADES/ EXAMPLE
TPRS/ EXAMPLE
STORYTELLING IN CYBERSPACE/ EXAMPLE
FEEDBACK
Reading is the key to successful storytelling!
What is storytelling?
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Storytelling is many things to many people.
It is entertainment, a way of passing on a culture's
history, or a way of teaching to both the young and
the old.
It is something that must be experienced and tried
before you can fully understand it. More than
anything else, storytelling is an art. An art that
anyone can participate in.
We all are storytellers, whether we realize it or not.
(Adapted from “Tim Sheppard’s Storytelling Resources for Storytellers” website)
LEARNING THROUGH STORIES
STORYTELLING…
 Develops empathy/ compassion
 Teaches a moral
 Deepens the relationship between teacher- students
 Encourages involvement, discussion, peer cooperation and
interaction
 Enhances imagination and visualisation
 Develops all four skills
 Introduces different cultures and worlds
Storytelling introduces students to the beauty of language and
literature. (parallelism/ rich vocabulary/ alliteration/ contrast/
metaphor/ narrative/ dialogue)
STORYTELLING - TEENAGERS
A BOX! 
TEENAGERS/ ADOLESCENTS:
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Want to please and impress their peers
Have a greater capacity for abstract thinking
Talk about more conceptual ideas
Are capable of creative thought
Are dedicated to topics
STORIES FOR UPPER GRADES
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TYPES OF STORIES
-fairy tales/ legends/ ethical/ crime/ ghost/ adventure/ nature
stories/ stories of romance/ comic stripsCREATING STORIES
Creativity enriches and empowers students with self-confidence
Stories are prompted with visual aids (pictures, drawings,
charts, objects, magazines…) to help us create chunks, retell
stories using Chinese whispers, write chain stories…
Example
Joe
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BEFORE GOING TO PRISON
AFTER BEING PUT TO PRISON
HAS A GOOD JOB
A GIRLFRIEND
A HOUSE
A LOT OF MONEY
IS HAPPY
SATISFIED
HAS NO JOB
NO GIRLFRIEND
NO HOUSE
NO MONEY
IS SAD
NOT SATISFIED
NOW HE IS
IN PRISON
AND HE
He used to have a girlfriend.
Did he use to have a lot of money?
He used to have a house.
He didn’t use to be sad.
COMPREHENSION!
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60% of all human communication is nonverbal, body
language;
30% is your tone;
Therefore 90% of what you are saying doesn’t come
out of your mouth.
We need 100% for comprehension!
Stephen Krashen’s input hypothesis - we acquire a
language only when we receive comprehensible
input in a low-anxiety environment
Total Physical Response Storytelling
-TPRS
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TPR method- developed by Dr. James Asher allows a pre-speaking phase
and suits beginner levels
Drawbacks- directed by teacher/ promotes receptive skills/ emphasizes
commands/ neglects the use of narratives, descriptions and conversations/
limits creativity
TPRS- developed by Blaine Ray, a Spanish teacher
It transforms words into magic; it brings books, languages and teenagers to
life.
TPRS strategies utilize vocabulary by incorporating it into stories
Students hear, watch, act out, retell, revise, read and eventually even
write and rewrite
Gestures performed by the teacher/ students are used to facilitate
comprehension
Prior to the oral stage students respond kinaesthetically
TPRS emphasizes – positive/ collaborative/ supportive classroom climate in
which all skills are equally developed
Example - Listen to a story and mime! 
STORYTELLING IN CYBERSPACE
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Storytellers:
Access new information easily and share ideas
Link their students to theatre sites, reading resources, web sites linked to
theme and topic being researched
Share stories/ watch a short video and write/ create a chain story/ write with
prompts/ join in a competition in essay writing…
Websites offer a wide range of activity sheets, lesson plans, interactive tasks,
short videos, films and pictures that can become realia for the teachers to
use to prompt the storytelling or story writing
Example
Watch a clip and write a story!
Consider some of the following ideas!
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Where did the story happen?
Who was the man?
Who was the other man?
What happened later/ before that?
Introduce any other characters and have fun!
Gary Player
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“The more I practice, the better I become and
the better I become, the luckier I get!”
Practice makes perfect!
Thank you! 
References
Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching Languages to Young Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Carstairs, M. (2009).“Development of the Virtual Classroom and School”.
http://www.articlesbase.com/online-education-articles/development-of-the-virtualclassroom-and-school-709922.html
Cross, A. and Statler, N. M. (1918). Storytelling for Upper Grade Teachers. Chicago,
New York: Row, Peterson and Company.
Davis, A. (2007). Storytelling in the Classroom- Enhancing Oral and Traditional
Skills for Teachers. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
De Vos, G. (2003). Storytelling for Young Adults: A Guide to Tales for Teens. Westport:
Libraries Unlimited, A Member of Greenwood Publishing Group.
Greene, E. (1996). Storytelling: Art and Technique. 3rd Ed. Westport: Libraries
Unlimited, A Member of Greenwood Publishing Group.
Halliwell, S. (1992). Teaching English in the Primary Classroom. Harlow: Pearson
Education Limited.
Harmer, J. (1992). The Practice of English Language Teaching, New Edition. Harlow:
Pearson Education Limited.
Harmer, J. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching, Third Edition. Harlow:
Pearson Education Limited.
Harmer, J. (2007). How to Teach English. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Hearne, B. et al. (1997). Story: From Fireplace to Cyberspace: Connecting Children
and narrative. Illinois: The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.
Krashen, S. “Krashen’s Comprehension Hypothesis Model of L2 Learning”
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/SLA/Krashen.htm Updated to September 2009.
Miller, C. H. (2004). Digital Storytelling: A Creator’s Guide to Interactive
Entertainment. Oxford: Elsevier. INC.
Mulholland, T. (2007). “The Use of Virtual Environments in Online Learning Education”.
http://www.articlesbase.com/non-fiction-articles/the-use-of-virtual-environments-inonline-learning-education-113781.html
Owen, N. (2001). The Magic of Metaphor. Carmarthen: Crown House Publishing Limited.
Scrivener, J. (1994). Learning Teaching. Oxford: Heinemann English Language
Teaching.
Sheppard, T. (2002), “Tim Sheppard’s Storytelling Resources for Storytellers”.
http://www.timsheppard.co.uk/story/index.html Updated to 19 July 2007.
Wright, A. (1995). Storytelling with Children. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wright, A. (1997). Creating Stories with Children. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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