Stalin and the U.S.S.R.

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Stalin and the
U.S.S.R.
War Communism
• Campaign to extract “surplus” wheat
• Campaign against “Kulaks”
• Results –
– Grain decline from 78 million tons (1913) to 48
million (1920)
– Kronsdat Naval Base mutiny 1921
– Famine kills 5 million plus
– Helps success of Civil War
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Post Civil War challenges
• Famine
• Reluctance of peasants to
collectivize
• Industrial backwardness
Lenin’s Policies
• New Economic Policy
• Comintern
Joseph Stalin 1879-1953
• Djugashvili
• Head of
communist
party
secretariat
Leon Trotsky
Stalin’s Ascension
• How did Stalin achieve power?
–
–
–
–
General Secretary of Party
Party “nomenclature”
Isolates Trotsky
Isolates Kamenev and Zinoviev
Competing Visions
• Trotsky
• Stalin
• Communist • “Socialism
International in One
(Comintern)
Country”
Lenin’s concerns:
• “Stalin is too rude, and his fault…
becomes unbearable in the office of
General Secretary. Therefore, I
propose to the comrades to find a way
to remove Stalin from that position and
appoint it to another man.”
“Socialism in One
Country”
• What would Stalin need
to do to strengthen the
Soviet Union?
Collectivization
• End of New Economic
Policy 1928
• …join a kolkhoz or face
deportation or death...
Results
• Destruction of animals /
crops
• Targetting kulaks / others
• 14 million dead 28 - 32
• Ukrainian famine 1933
Industrialization: The 5
year plans
• “We are 50 to 100 years
behind the advanced
countries. We must make
good this distance in 10
years…or we shall be
crushed”
5 year plans
• What would be the most
important goals for
industrial development?
• How could the Soviet
Union achieve them?
Propaganda
Aleksei Stakhanov
Gulags
Degree of Success of 5
year plans / collectivization
Take notes on plans
• Write a paragraph
expressing an opinion
TWE the policies were
successful /15 Due:
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