误解的潜在性 - 中国语用学研究会China Pragmatics Association

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山西大学外国语学院 吴亚欣
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Subject: Hi, Mary. How is the work going?
Experimenter: What do you mean, “How is it going?” Do you
mean mentally or financially?
Subject: I mean “How is it going?” What’s the matter with you?
Experimenter: Nothing. Could you just explain a little clearer
what you want to know?
Subject: Skip it. How is that new project coming?
Experimenter: What do you mean, “How is it coming?”
Subject: You know what I mean.
Experimenter: I really don’t.
Subject: What’s the matter with you? Are you sick?
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“Language use and communication are in fact
pervasively and even intrinsically flawed,
partial, and problematic” (Coupland, Giles &
Wiemann, 1991, p.3)
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“ during the process of interpersonal
communication,
participants
tolerate
a
rather-high degree of non-acknowledged,
unresolved
potential
misunderstanding”
(Blum-Kulka & Wiezman, 1989)
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The co-pilot repeatedly called attention to the bad weather
and to ice building up on other planes:
Co-pilot: Look how the ice is just hanging on his, ah, back,
back there, see that?
Captain: Side there.
…
Co-pilot: See all those icicles on the back there and
everything?
Captain: Yeah.
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He expressed concern early on about the long waiting time
between de-icing:
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Co-pilot: Boy, this is a, this is a losing battle here
on trying to de-ice those things, it (gives) you a
false feeling of security, that’s all that does.
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Shortly after they were given clearance to take off,
he again expressed concern:
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Co-pilot: Let’s check these tops again since we
been setting here awhile.
Captain: I think we get to go here in a minute.
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When they were about to take off, the co-pilot called
attention to the engine instrument readings, which were not
normal:
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Co-pilot: That don’t seem right, does it? (3-second pause).
Ah, that’s not right. (2-second pause) (Well)…
Captain: Yes, it is, there’s eighty.
Co-pilot: Naw, I don’t think that’s right. (7-second pause)
Ah, maybe it is.
Captain: Hundred and twenty.
Co-pilot: I don’t know.
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The takeoff proceeded, and thirty-seven seconds
later the pilot and co-pilot exchanged their last
words:
Co-pilot: Larry, we’re going down, Larry.
Captain: I know it.
((Sound of impact))
(Tannen 1994: 92-93)
语言
(言语)交际
人
指示性
语言
反身性
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“…all words have multiple meanings. These
meanings are narrowed down by the context
in which the words are used.” (Heyman, 1994,
p.9)
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语言的意义依赖于语境
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The car you saw today and intend to buy
tomorrow, somebody saw yesterday and
intends to buy today.
(Sign displayed in a Mazda showroom)
(Cited from Grundy, 2000, p. 22)
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I mean if you come this way you’re into
there’s a road here and there’s a circulating
ring road and if you come this way there’s a
very tight corner here. (Grundy, 2000, p.36)
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(Costello) On the Saint Louis team we have Who’s
on first, What’s on second, I Don’t Know’s on third.
(Abbott) That’s what I want to find out. I want you
to tell me the names of the fellows on the Saint
Louis team.
(Costello) I, I’m telling you Who’s on first, What’s
on second, I Don’t Know’s on third.
(Abbott) You know the fellow’s names?
(Costello) Yes.
(Abbott) Well then, Who’s playing first?
(Costello) Yes.
(Abbott) I mean, the fellow’s name on first base.
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(Costello) Who.
(Abbott) The fellow playing first base for Saint
Louis.
(Costello) Who.
(Abbott) The guy on first base.
(Costello) Who is on first.
(Abbott) Well, what are you asking me for?
(Costello) I’m not asking you, I’m telling you, Who
is on first.
(Abbott) I’m asking you: Who’s on first?
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“The meaning (of language) depends on our
interpretation, which is based on the context;
at the same time, the context is also an
interpretation. Meaning (of language) and
context each provide the grounds for the
other .” (Heyman, 1994, p. 10)
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这次全国语用学研讨会是最有地方特色的一次研讨
会。
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语言的反身性:语言使用的语境要靠语言的意义来
界定。或者换句话讲,语言的意义和语境之间是互
相界定的。
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One day as David was walking down the hall, his
boss called him into her office and said, “David,
what do you think of affirmative action?” David’s
immediate response was “It certainly hasn’t hurt
our company. Especially since we depend on
government contracts for much of our work.”
Looking serious, his boss then responded, “Yes, I
know, but I was thinking of affirmative action with
respect to my son who is applying to law school
this year. He’s afraid that he might not get in
unless he scores really high on the law aptitude
test because so many women and minority groups
are applying” (. (Cited from Heyman, 1994, p. 18)
主体性
人
心理倾向性
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“Much –even most- meaning in conversation
does not reside in the words spoken at all, but
is filled in by the person listening. Each of us
decides whether we think others are speaking
in the spirit of differing status or symmetrical
connection. The likelihood that individuals will
tend to interpret someone else’s words as one
or the other depends more on the hearer’s own
focus, concerns, and habits than on the spirit
in which the words were intended. ”(Tannen,
1990, p.37)
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主体性:人对世界认识及其表征的个体差异性。
差异的可能原因:交际的环境,交际者的性别、性
格、喜好、情感状态、交际时所关心的事情、意图、
习惯、成长中所接受的文化等。
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Egyptian pilots radioed their intention to
land at an airbase on Cyprus and the Greek
traffic controllers reportedly responded with
silence. The Greeks intended thereby to
indicate refusal of permission to land, but
the Egyptians interpreted silence as assent.
The result of the misunderstanding in this
case was the loss of a number of lives when
Greeks fired on the planes as they
approached the runway. (Saville-Troike,
1985p.11)
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(A is preparing a meal in the kitchen. B is in the
living room next to it. Both rooms are connected by
a door.)
(8.1) A: I want to hear the news. Keep the door
open.
(8.2) B: That's not possible. Our neighbour is at
home.
(8.3) A: Keep the door open. I am coming.
(E. Weigand / Journal of Pragmatics 31 (1999) 763785 777)
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心理倾向指的是由于受心理或社会因素的影响,人会做出非理性的错
误判断的倾向,是认知科学和社会心理学研究的一种现象,可分为动
机倾向(motivational biases)和认知倾向(cognitive biases),
前者指的是人们倾向于进行和自己的需要和愿望相一致的推理,避免
做和自己的需要和愿望相悖的推理,受此类动机影响,很容易导致非
理性的推理错误;后者是由于受人们认知能力所限,无法顾及和加工
所有可为其所用的信息,而导致系统性的偏离常规和标准的推理错误。
无论是哪种心理倾向,都是在非理性的、主观心理因素的影响下表现
出的对多个可能的判断和结论中的某一个判断的偏好(Kruglanski
and Ajzen 1983)。
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匹配倾向(matching bias)
注意倾向(attentional bias)
信念倾向(belief bias)
证实倾向(confirmation bias)
代表性(representativeness)可及性(availability)
、基点与调整(anchoring and adjustment)三种经验
推理方法
…….
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(成人A和小孩B一起散步。A手里拿着B想要玩的皮球和B
在路上采的花。过了一会儿,A让B拿住皮球。)
(1)A: Can you hold the ball? (A gives B the ball)
(2)B: And you keep the flower.
(3)A: Do you want it?
(4)B: No, you keep it.
(摘自Weigand 1999)
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(席间)
A: 今天早上真冷,都打不着车。
B:今天你打车上班的?
C:现在的车都先进了,天再冷,一般也可以打着。
A:第一下没打着。
B:我还以为你打的上班了呢。
C:你怎么会这么理解呢?难道你不知道天冷的时候车不容易发动吗?
B:知道啊!A前一段时间因为经常堵车,就没开车,打过一段时间的。
C:噢。这点我不知道。
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Old Lady 1 : “Is this stop Bloomington ?”An old
lady asked the bus driver.
Driver 1 : “No , Ma’am. ”
Old Lady 2 : “Well , please tell me when we get
there ,”she requested. ←
Driver 2 : “I’ll do that ,”promised the driver.
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Later , the driver got careless and
passed through Bloomington before
he realized it . He apologized to the
other passengers , turned around ,
and drove back. Then he said to the old lady :
Driver 3 : “This is the town where you wanted
to get out . ”
Old Lady 3 : “Who wanted to get out ?”
Driver 4 : “You did. ”
Old Lady 4 : “No ,”she said ,“my daughter told
me that when I pass through this
town , I should take my pills. ”
(转引自宗世海,2005)
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“no assurance that communication will be
certain or even relatively trouble free”(Fish,
1989, p.42)
Thank
You
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