• Student motivation varies and is affected by the different goal orientations of students
• How can we foster a curriculum and classroom environment leading all students to a deeper sense of intrinsic motivation/desire to learn?
• “Goal orientations are students’ reasons for engaging in or avoiding achievement-directed behavior. These goal orientations are important because they serve as the basis for how students define their own competence (Pintrich & Schunk,
2002). Students’ goal orientations are contextsensitive and can be influenced by classroom procedures, practices, and policies (Ames, 1992).
“ (Beghetto, 2004 pg. 2).
The number of homework assignments not turned in over a period of 13 weeks
These data show an increase in the number of homework assignments not turned in
Student-Led Classroom Benefits Deficits
• Teacher may feel at first a lack of control
“Ames (1992) reviewed evidence indicating that mastery orientations are promoted in classrooms that afford students autonomy and decision making”
(Blumenfeld, 1992, p.274).
“The locus of responsibility in the classroom, which has often been operationally defined as teachers' orientation toward autonomy
(e.g., Deci, Schwartz,
Sheinman, & Ryan, 1981), and the degree to which teachers involve children in decision making (e.g., Ryan
& Grolnick, 1986) have been related to adaptive or positive motivation patterns in children.” (Ames 1992, p.271)
•Students take on more responsibility
•They feel more in control
•There is a bigger buy in for them in the classroom
• Teaches students how to make decisions, real life skills.
• Teacher can act like facilitator, every thing is not contingent on the teacher.
• Students can pursue some of their interests
• Some students voices may outnumber others leading to minority decision-making.
• May take more class time
• Taking role at the beginning of each class
• Conducting all student discussions or debates for the week
• Collecting papers
• Passing back papers
• Being teacher assistances during any time which students need help on an assignment
• Design a survey to grade their performance
• Pre-teach cooperative skills and group leadership
• Encourage social learning and student assistance
• Have a sign up sheet prepared so that students can sign up for their week to be a student leader
• Meet with students the week before they lead to class to check on progress and answer any question
• Survey students at the end of each week (check for effectiveness of student leaders and overall motivation towards lessons)
R: M1→M2→M3 → T→M4 →M5 →M6
• Percentage rate of homework/class work turn in rate
• Percentage of students who take re-do opportunities
• Student survey on motivation to learn/ goal orientation
• Classroom observations of student participation/engagement defined as number of times students ask questions or provide answer/input beyond a factual recall.
• Class might be frustrated with the leadership skills of some particular students.
• Control class might be informed of student led activities and become increasingly put out that they’re not getting similar treatment.
• Some students might be better discussion leaders than other.
• Behavior situations might get out of control if certain students are not given enough support during their time to lead the class.