Consumer Behavior and E-Commerce MKTG 417 Knowledge, Involvement, Attention and Comprehension Chapters 4-5 Eat Popcorn! COGNITIVE PROCESSES Environment Interpretation (Attention & Comprehension) New Knowledge Integrate Information (To Form Attitudes, Intentions, and Choices Among Options) Consumer Behavior Memory (Stored Knowledge) Attention How do marketers get our attention? Attention • • Three Key Characteristics • Is Selective • Can Be Divided • Is Limited To stand out from the sea of marketing stimuli: • Make stimuli personally relevant • Appeal to target’s values, goals, needs, or interests • Use sources that are similar to the target • Use Pleasant Stimuli • Attractive models, music, humor • Make stimuli surprising • Create “unexpected” stimuli • Use a puzzle that consumers must solve • Make stimuli easy to process • Prominent, concrete, contrasting, and simple (not cluttered) • Keep it fresh (to avoid “habituation”, aka the wear out effect) Play Are these ads effective? If so, why? COGNITIVE PROCESSES Environment Interpretation (Attention & Comprehension) New Knowledge Integrate Information (To Form Attitudes, Intentions, and Choices Among Options) Consumer Behavior Memory (Stored Knowledge) Associative Network Accessibility of Knowledge Structures • Priming • Temporary activation of an “associative network” which influences interpretation, encoding, decision- making, behavior • Chronic Accessibility • Constructs which are almost always highly accessible (e.g., based on individual differences) Focus on Research Can We Process Information Beyond Conscious Awareness? And can this impact consumers? A Fascinating Study on PRIMING James Vicary & Movie Theater Manipulation? Drink Coke! Eat Popcorn! Karremans et al. (2006, JESP) Priming Method 500 milliseconds XXXXX “Orienting Stimulus” Prior to Each Set of Bs 23 milliseconds! Lipton Ice “Lipton Ice” or “Npeic Tol” Prime 500 milliseconds XXXXX “Orienting Stimulus” Prior to Each Set of Bs 300 milliseconds BBbBBB 5 trials: how many ‘b’? 25 total trials of B strings XXXXX Lipton Ice XXXXX BBbBBB Also rated Intention to drink Coke and Spa Rood Karremans et al. (2006, JESP, Study 1) Priming Preference for Lipton Ice Tea (vs. Spa Rood) Karremans et al. – Study 2 “Moderation” Under What Conditions is A Relationship Stronger? Lipton Ice Prime Condition Thirst Self-Reported (Study 1) Experimentally-Manipulated (Study 2) Lipton Ice Intentions Conclusion? Vicary’s Claim Was a Hoax BUT… It Appears He Was Right (Under Certain Circumstances) We Can’t Create Desire Subliminally But if Desire is Present, We Can Influence Which Product is Chosen Another Examples of Priming What’s With those Frog Wines? Labroo et al. (2007, JCR) Semantic Priming & Perceptual Fluency Experiment 1 Think about: Then shown: Frog or Frog Wine & Control Wine for Control Word 16 milliseconds or 3 seconds Select Preferred Wine Out of 8 Test Trials Labroo et al. (2007, JCR) Semantic Priming & Perceptual Fluency Experiment 3 Circle Words: Then shown: Related to Dogs Shampoo With or Without Picture of a dog Or Control Words Rate how easy It was to process product And liking of product “Mediation” Why Semantic Priming Improves Product Evaluation Condition (controls vs. experimental) Processing Fluency Product Evaluation Conclusion? Words (like frog) can semantically prime consumers to process marketing stimuli more easily (i.e., fluently) and this feeling of fluency results in more favorable product evaluations Another Interesting Study Does Art Impact Perceptions of Luxury? Hagtvedt & Patrick (2008, JMR, Study 1) The Art Infusion Effect The Product Product Evaluation: Mean = 5.41 Product Evaluation: Mean = 4.47 Mediation: Why Art Increases Product Evaluation Presence of Art Perceptions of Luxury Product Evaluation Conclusion? Art leads to a perception that a product is luxurious and perceptions of luxury enhance product evaluations Time to bring in Van Gogh!