The project Management Process Groups: A case study

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Chapter 3:
The Project Management Process
Groups
Information Technology Project Management,
Fourth Edition
Learning Objectives

Describe the five project management (PM)
process groups, the typical level of activity for
each, and the interactions among them.

Understand how the PM process groups relate to
the PM knowledge areas.

Discuss how organizations develop information
technology PM methodologies to meet their needs.
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Learning Objectives
 Apply the PM process groups to manage an
information technology project, and understand the
contribution that effective project initiation, project
planning, project execution, project monitoring and
controlling, and project closing make to project
success.
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Project Management Process
Groups
 A process is a series of actions directed toward a particular
result.
 Project management can be viewed as a number of
interlinked processes.
 The project management process groups include:
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Initiating processes
Planning processes
Executing processes
Monitoring and controlling processes
Closing processes
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Project Management Processes and
ITPM Phases
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Initiating Processes
 Defining and authorizing a project or project phase
 Define the business need for the project, sponsor,
project manager
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Planning Processes
 Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure
that the project address the organization’s needs.
 There is no single project plan such as the scope
management plan, schedule management plan
 Defining each knowledge area as it relates to the
project
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The work needs to be done
Schedule activities
Cost estimate
Resources to procure
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Executing Processes
 Coordinating people and other resources to
 carry out the project plans
 produce the products, services, or results
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Monitoring and Controlling
Processes
 Measuring and monitoring progress to ensure that the
project team meets the project objectives.
 Measure progress against the plans
 Common monitoring and controlling process is
performance reporting
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Closing Processes
 Formalizing acceptance of the project or project phase
and ending it efficiently.
 Administrative activities are often involved in this
process group
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Archiving project files
Closing out contracts
Documenting lessons learned
Receiving formal accepatance
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Figure 3-1. Level of Activity and Overlap
of Process Groups Over Time
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Mapping the Process Groups to the
Knowledge Areas
 You can map the main activities of each PM process
group into the nine knowledge areas by using the
PMBOK® Guide 2004.
 Note that there are activities from each knowledge area
under the planning process group.
 All initiating activities are part of the project
integration management knowledge area.
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Table 3-1. Relationships Among Process Groups
and Knowledge Areas
PMBOK® Guide 2004, p. 69
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Table 3-1. Relationships Among Process Groups
and Knowledge Areas (cont’d)
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Developing an IT Project
Management Methodology
 Methodology describes how things should be done, and
different organizations often have different ways of
doing things.
 Six Sigma projects and the Rational Unified Process
(RUP) framework use project management
methodologies.
 RUP is an iterative software development process that
focuses on team productivity and delivers software best
practices to all team members
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Project Initiation
 Initiating a project includes recognizing and starting a new
project or project phase.
 Some organizations use a pre-initiation phase, while others
include items such as developing a business case as part of the
initiation.
 The main goal is to formally select and start off projects.
 Key outputs include:
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


Assigning the project manager.
Identifying key stakeholders.
Completing a business case.
Completing a project charter and getting signatures on it.
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Project Initiation Documents
 Business case: See pages 82-85.
 Charter: See pages 86-87.
 Every organization has its own variations of what
documents are required to initiate a project. It’s
important to identify the project need, stakeholders,
and main goals.
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Project Initiation- Business Case
 An analysis of the organizational value, feasibility,
costs, benefits, and risks of the project plan.
 Not a budget or project plan
 To provide senior management with all the information
needed to make an informed decision as to whether a
specific project should be funded.
 Must document the methods & rationale used for
quantifying the costs and benefits.
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Project Initiation- Business Case
 Attributes of a Good Business Case
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Details all possible impacts, costs, benefits
Clearly compares alternatives
Objectively includes all pertinent information
Systematic in terms of summarizing findings
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Project Charter
 Project charter is a document that formally recognizes
the existence of a project and provides a direction on
the project’s objectives and management.
 Purpose of the Project Charter
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Document the project objectives
Define project infrastructure
Summarize details of project plan
Define roles and responsibilities
Show explicit commitment to project
Set out project control mechanisms
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Project Planning
 The main purpose of project planning is to guide
execution.
 Every knowledge area includes planning information (see
Table 3-5 on pages 87-89).
 Key outputs included in the JWD project include:



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A team contract.
A scope statement.
A work breakdown structure (WBS).
A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all
dependencies and resources entered.
 A list of prioritized risks (part of a risk register).
 See sample documents on pages 90-98.
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Planning Processes and Outputs
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Planning Processes and Outputs
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Planning Processes and Outputs
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Planning Processes and Outputs
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Scope Statement (Draft Version)
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Scope Statement (Draft Version)
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Scope Statement (Draft Version)
(continued)
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Figure 3-4. JWD Consulting Intranet
Site Project Baseline Gantt Chart
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Figure 3-4. JWD Consulting Intranet
Site Project Partial Network Diagram
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Table 3-8. List of Prioritized Risks
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Project Executing
 Project execution usually takes the most time and
resources.
 Project managers must use their leadership skills to handle
the many challenges that occur during project execution.
 Table 3-9 on page 99 lists the executing processes and
outputs. Many project sponsors and customers focus on
deliverables related to providing the products, services, or
results desired from the project.
 A milestone report (see example on page 100) can keep the
focus on completing major milestones.
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Executing Processes and Outputs
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Executing Processes and Outputs
(continued)
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Table. 3-10. Part of Milestone
Report
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Project Monitoring and Controlling
 Involves measuring progress toward project objectives,
monitoring deviation from the plan, and taking
corrective action to match progress with the plan.
 Affects all other process groups and occurs during all
phases of the project life cycle.
 Outputs include performance reports, requested
changes, and updates to various plans.
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Monitoring and Controlling
Processes and Outputs
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Monitoring and Controlling
Processes and Outputs (continued)
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Monitoring and Controlling
Processes and Outputs (continued)
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Monitoring and Controlling
Processes and Outputs (continued)
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Monitoring and Controlling
Processes and Outputs (continued)
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Table 3-12:
Sample Weekly Status Report
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Table 3-12:
Sample Weekly Status Report (continued)
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Project Closing
 Involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance
of the final products and services.
 Even if projects are not completed, they should be
formally closed in order to reflect on what can be
learned to improve future projects.
 Outputs include project archives and lessons learned,
which are part of organizational process assets.
 Most projects also include a final report and
presentation to the sponsor or senior management.
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Table 3-13: Closing Processes and
Output
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Table 3-14: Lessons-Learned Report
(abbreviated)
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Lessons-Learned Report
(abbreviated) (continued)
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Final Project Report Table of
Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
Project Objectives
Summary of Project Results
Original and Actual Start and End Dates
Original and Actual Budget
5. Project Assessment (Why did you do this project?
What did you produce? Was theproject a success?
What went right and wrong on the project?)
6. Transition Plan
7. Annual Project Benefits Measurement Approach
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Final Project Report Table of
Contents (continued)
Attachments: A. Project Management Documentation


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Business case
Project charter
Team contract
Scope statement
WBS
 Baseline and actual Gantt
chart
 List of prioritized risks
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Milestone reports
Status reports
Contract files
Lessons-learned reports
Final presentation
Client acceptance form
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Final Project Report Table of
Contents (continued)
Attachments: B. Product-Related Documentation
 Survey and results
 Summary of user inputs
 Intranet site content
 Test plans and reports
 Intranet site design
documents
 Intranet site roll-out
information
 Intranet site promotion
information
 Project benefits
measurement information
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