Introductory Psychology

Neuroscience and
Consciousness
Neurons
Neurons vary in size and shape
 All are specialized to receive and transmit
information

Synapse
The Neural Impulse
Take it to the Web
Synapses
 The Neural Process
 Online Quiz

Types of Messages
Excitatory messages
 Inhibitory messages

Types of Neurons
The Nervous System
Central Nervous System (CNS)
 Peripheral Nervous System

 Somatic
Nervous System
 Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic division
 Parasympathetic division

The Nervous System and
Beyond…

Endocrine System
 Hormones
 Pituitary
gland
 Adrenal glands
 Gender effects
Get into small groups and determine how each of the following parts of
the brain may be active while driving a car. Keep in mind that some
structures might be more active under certain driving conditions,
whereas others may be active regardless of conditions.

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

Medulla
Thalamus
Reticular formation
Cerebellum
Amygdala
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus

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Frontal lobes
Parietal lobes
Occipital lobes
Temporal lobes
Motor cortex
Sensory cortex
The Brain
Web Information

Brain model tutorial
Brainstem
Thalamus
Medulla
Cerebellum
Substantia Nigra
Plays an
important role in
reward, addiction,
and movement
The Limbic System
The Limbic System is a
doughnut-shaped
system of neural
structures at the border
of the brainstem and
cerebrum, associated
with emotions such as
fear, aggression and
drives for food and sex.
It includes the
hippocampus, amygdala,
and hypothalamus.
Amygdala
The Amygdala [ah-MIGdah-la] consists of two lima
bean-sized neural clusters
linked to the emotions of
fear and anger.
Hypothalamus
The Hypothalamus lies
below (hypo) the
thalamus. It directs
several maintenance
activities like eating,
drinking, body
temperature, and
control of emotions. It
helps govern the
endocrine system via
the pituitary gland.
Hippocampus

Neuroplasticity

Neurogenesis
The Cerebral Cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that
covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate
control and information processing center.
Lobes
The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the
frontal lobes that control voluntary movements.
Lobes
The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information
from skin surface and sense organs.
Lobes
Lobes
Quiz

Lobes of the Brain
Group Activity

List the five most essential structures of
the brain and the five least essential


The Setting: You are a famous neurosurgeon
who specializes in brain damage involving the
language system. In each of the following
cases, make a “diagnosis” concerning where
you believe brain damage has occurred.
Case 1: A 56-year-old female has suffered a
recent stroke. She speaks in a curious manner
resembling fluent English but the phrases make
no sense. You find that she comprehends your
verbal or written instructions perfectly and can
even write them down, but cannot repeat them
verbally. You quickly diagnose the problem as a
lesion in the _____________.


Case 2: A mother brings her 7-year-old son to you
because he is having serious problems in learning to
read. At age 5 his corpus callosum was sectioned to
prevent epileptic seizures. She points out that he is a
very intelligent child and she cannot understand why
reading is so difficult for him. You explain that his
reading difficulties are probably related to the fact that
_________.
Case 3: An intelligent businessman comes to you and
explains rather agitatedly that he awakened yesterday
morning to find, much to his dismay, that he could no
longer read. Your tests determine the following: a) He is
totally blind in the right visual field. b) He speaks fluently
and comprehends speech. c) He can write with his right
hand but cannot read what he has written. d) He can
copy written words but only with his left hand. You turn
to your puzzled assistant and remark that this is indeed a
tough one, but you are willing to bet that you will find
brain damage in at least two areas, which are
_______________ and __________________.
Methods of Studying the Brain
p. 35
 http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/

Consciousness

An organism’s awareness of itself and
surroundings

Not all-or-none; rather, more on a
continuum
Attention

Selective Attention
Dichotic Listening Technique
Attention

Selective Attention

Cocktail-Party Effect
Attention

Selective Attention

Cocktail-Party Effect

Automaticity
 Divided
attention task
Sleep
Brain processes external information
 Brain processes internal information
 Body remains active
 In general, can be easily awakened

Stages of Sleep
Stage 1
 Stage 2
 Stage 3
 Stage 4


Stages of sleep
Sleep Deprivation
REM deprivation
 Delta deprivation

Why do we sleep?

Restorative/recuperative therapy
 (sleep

protects)
Evolutionary/Circadian theory
 (sleep
helps us recover)
Sleep helps us remember
 Sleep may play a role in the growth
process

Sleep Disturbances
 Parasomnias
Nightmares
Night
Terrors
Sleepwalking
Sleeptalking
 Insomnia
 Sleep
Apnea
 Narcolepsy
Nature and Function of Dreams

Psychodynamic view
 Freud
 Wish
fulfillment
 Unconscious
 Manifest content
 Latent content
Nature and Function of Dreams

Information Processing
 Dreams
of absent-minded transgression
DAMIT
Physiological/Biological View
 Activation-synthesis hypothesis
 Cognitive View

The Brain and Sleep
REM  pons/acetylcholine
 Initiation/duration  serotonin
 Wakefulness/arousal  norepinephrine,
dopamine

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