Classroom Assessment for Student Learning:

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Classroom Assessment
for
Student Learning
2
Used with skill, assessment can
•
•
•
•
Motivate the unmotivated
Restore students’ desire to learn
Encourage students to keep learning
Create—not simply measure—
increased achievement
--Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, & Chappuis, 2004
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What assessment
practices motivate
students to improve
their learning?
4
Who Uses Assessment Information,
and How?
Beginning with the person whose birthday is
closest to today and moving clockwise, assign
the following roles:
– Student
– Parent
– Teacher
– Principal
– Athletic coach
– Guidance counselor
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Write your role in the blank on the handout.
Answer #1 individually (3 – 5 minutes), then
beginning with the “student,” share your list with
others at your table.
When all roles have shared, notice what
conclusions you are drawing about classroom
assessment.
Note and discuss your responses to question #2.
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Some Conclusions
• Data must be sound because major
decisions that affect students’ wellbeing are made on its basis.
• Assessment data is used for many
purposes beyond grading.
• Students are crucial decisionmakers, whose information needs
must be met.
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Think of a time you were
assessed and it was a
negative experience. What
made it negative?
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Now think of a time you
were assessed and it was a
positive experience. What
made it positive?
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Emily’s Story:
Assessment for Learning
• Read Emily’s story and the two
papers she wrote.
• Then read Emily’s interview with Rick
Stiggins after the school board
meeting.
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What did Emily’s teacher do that
helped Emily succeed?
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Krissy’s Experience
• Read the story of Krissy’s
assessment experience.
• What did this teacher do that
made it difficult for Krissy to
achieve the learning goals?
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What are the essential differences
between Emily’s and Krissy’s
experiences?
How did ASSESSMENT AFFECT
MOTIVATION in these two
students’ experiences?
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New Mission, New Beliefs
Keynote Presentation
Featuring
Rick Stiggins
14
What assessment beliefs in our
system are most in need of
change?
If those beliefs changed, what
changes in practice would
follow?
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What actions can you take to
improve your assessment
environment?
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Inside the BLACK BOX
Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment
A Review of Research on the
Effects of Formative Assessment
by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam
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FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT:
All those activities undertaken by
teachers and by their students [that]
provide information to be used as
FEEDBACK to modify the
teaching and learning activities
in which they are engaged.
--Black & Wiliam, 1998
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Research consistently
shows that regular, highquality FORMATIVE
ASSESSMENT increases
student achievement.
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Activity Directions
• Read through the excerpt from
“Inside the Black Box.”
• Note the 3–5 most important
points to you. (5 minutes)
• Share with a group of 2 or 3
others at your table. (5 minutes)
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According to the Black & Wiliam
article:
Which formative assessment
practices are ESSENTIAL
to improved student
achievement?
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Black & Wiliam Review of
Research:
1. Does better FORMATIVE
assessment = higher learning?
2. Does formative assessment
need improving?
3. What improvement is needed?
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Black & Wiliam Research on Effects
of Formative Assessment:
.4 to .7 Gain
.7 Standard Deviation Score Gain =
 25 Percentile Points on ITBS (middle
of score range)
 70 SAT Score Points
 4 ACT Score Points
Largest Gain for Low Achievers
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Recommended Practices
• Increased descriptive feedback,
reduced evaluative feedback
• Increased student selfassessment
• Increased opportunities for
students to communicate their
evolving learning during the
teaching
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The ultimate user of
assessment information
is the student.
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CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Gather accurate information
about student achievement
• Use assessment process and
results to promote maximum
student learning
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Classroom Assessment for
Student Learning:
Doing It Right—Using It
Well
ACCURACY
PURPOSE
EFFECTIVE USE
EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
DESIGN
STUDENT
INVOLVEMENT
TARGET
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ACCURACY
EFFECTIVE USE
PURPOSE
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Key 1:
Clear Assessment Purpose
Always begin by asking
• What decisions?
• Who’s making them?
• What information will be
helpful to them?
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What’s the PURPOSE for
assessment?
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Two Purposes for Assessment
SUMMATIVE
• Assessments OF Learning
– How much have students learned as
of a particular point in time?
FORMATIVE
• Assessments FOR Learning
– How can we use assessment
information to help students learn
more?
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Balanced Assessment
Formative
Formal and informal processes teachers
and students use to gather evidence to
directly improve the learning of students
assessed
Assessment
for learning
Use assessments to
help students assess
and adjust their own
learning
Assessment
for learning
Use classroom
assessments to
inform teacher’s
decisions
Summative
Provides evidence
achievement to certify student
competence or program
effectiveness
Formative uses of
summative data
Use of summative evidence
to inform what comes next
for individuals or groups of
students
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Key 1:
Clear Assessment Purpose
Always begin by asking
• What decisions?
• Who’s making them?
• What information will be helpful
to them?
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ACCURACY
EFFECTIVE USE
PURPOSE
TARGET
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Key 2:
Clear Learning Targets
• Know what kinds of targets are represented in
curriculum
–
–
–
–
Knowledge
Reasoning
Performance skill
Products
• Master the targets ourselves
• Know which targets each assessment
measures
• Make learning targets clear to students, too.
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Clarifying Learning Targets
• Begin with state standards
• Order in learning progressions, if
needed
• Deconstruct into clear learning
targets leading to each standard
• Communicate the learning targets in
advance in language students can
understand
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ACCURACY
EFFECTIVE USE
PURPOSE
DESIGN
TARGET
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Key 3:
Sound Assessment Design
• Select a proper method
• Select or create quality items, tasks,
and rubrics
• Sample appropriately
• Prevent bias
• Design assessments so students can
self-assess and set goals based on
the results
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Possible Assessment Methods

Selected Response







Multiple Choice
True/False
Matching
Fill in
Extended Written Response
Performance Assessment
Personal Communication



Questions
Conferences
Interviews
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ACCURACY
PURPOSE
EFFECTIVE USE
EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
DESIGN
TARGET
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Key 4:
Effective Communication
• Provide students with timely, accurate
descriptive feedback
• Involve students in tracking and
communicating about their learning
• Use grading practices that accurately
communicate about student learning
• Interpret and use standardized test
results correctly
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My definition of feedback:
Characteristics of effective
feedback:
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Effective Feedback…
• Directs attention to the intended
learning, pointing out strengths and
offering specific information to guide
improvement
• Occurs during the learning process
• Addresses partial understanding
• Does not do the thinking for the
student
• Limits correctives to the amount of
advice the student can act on
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ACCURACY
PURPOSE
EFFECTIVE USE
EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
DESIGN
STUDENT
INVOLVEMENT
TARGET
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Key 5: Student Involvement
• Students are identified as important users of
assessment information
• Students understand the learning targets and
standards of quality
• Students have opportunities to receive and give
feedback
• Assessments are designed so that students can
use the results to self-assess and set goals for
further action
• Students keep track of and share their achievement
Assessment FOR Learning!
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Why Assessment for Learning
Works
When students are required to think about
their own learning, articulate what they
understand, and what they still need to
learn, achievement improves.
--Black and Wiliam, 1998
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Assessment for Learning Strategies
Where am I going?
1. Provide a clear statement of the learning target
2. Use examples and models
Where am I now?
3. Offer regular descriptive feedback
4. Teach students to self-assess and set goals
How can I close the gap?
5. Design focused lessons
6. Teach students focused revision
7. Engage students in self-reflection; let them keep
track of and share their learning
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Understanding the Importance of
the Keys to Quality
• Which key(s) to quality did the negative
experiences violate
• Which key(s) to quality did your positive
experience reinforce?
• See if you can categorize the
experiences according to the keys to
quality.
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ACCURACY
PURPOSE
EFFECTIVE USE
EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
DESIGN
STUDENT
INVOLVEMENT
TARGET
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Requirement for Success?
Quality Assessment!
• All assessments arise from highquality content standards
• All assessments produce
accurate evidence
• All users use assessment to
benefit student learning
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Expected Benefits and
Proven Results
• Assessment connected to learning
• Better instruction focused on
standards
• Profound achievement gains for all
students, with the largest gains for
lowest achievers
• More self-managed learning by
students
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The ETS/ATI professional development program
for teachers and school leaders emphasizes
the need for balanced systems, quality
assessments at all levels and the effective use
of results: assessment for learning.
Jan Chappuis
Steve Chappuis
Rick Stiggins
Judy Arter
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Professional Development in
Collaborative Learning
Teams Using ATI Materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
Job embedded
Flexible
On-site
Economical
Teacher-directed
Formatted for self-study
using the Learning Team
Facilitator Handbook
College Credit Now Available
Learning teams using
Classroom Assessment for
Student Learning can earn 4
college credit hours from
Chapman University College.
Visit the ETS ATI website for
details: www.ets.org/ati
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