On your marks… get set… breathe!

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On your marks…
get set… breathe
11-14
On your marks…
get set… breathe
Peter Colat, a Swiss
freediver, smashed a
previous world record
when he held his breath
underwater for…
…19 minutes
and 21 seconds.
©Alamy Images: Buzz Pictures
Learning objectives
At the end of the lessons, you will be able to:
• measure breathing rate, pulse rate, lung volume,
expiratory tidal volume, peak flow and blood
oxygen level, and describe how these change
following various physical activities
• describe the role of the respiratory system in
physical activity
Learning objectives
• explain how sportsmen and women, and the
professionals they work with, use science to help
them improve their performance
• critically analyse and evaluate evidence from
observations and experiments
• plan and carry out practical and investigative
activities, both individually or in groups.
Background science
Breathing takes oxygen into the body and removes
carbon dioxide from the body.
air goes in and out
muscles contract
and relax
Breathing is the way that air is
forced in and out of the lungs.
Background science
Gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli.
Oxygen moves into the blood and carbon dioxide is
removed from the blood into the alveoli.
Background science
The lungs contain
around 300-500 million
alveoli. The surface
area of the alveoli is
around the same size
as a tennis court!
©Lev Radin
Background science
Do all activities affect breathing in the same way?
©Shutterstock.com: Diego Barbieri
©Schmid Christophe
©F.C.G
Background science
Do all activities affect breathing in the same way?
Archers breathe in and take aim,
then release the arrow. They hold
their breath to steady their body.
©Getty Images: Amwell / Stone
Dancers must control their
breathing carefully. Breathing and
upper body movement involve
the same muscles so can
interfere with each other.
Explaining the results
Why does breathing rate increase after exercise?
• We use energy all the time, even when we are
resting.
• Energy is released during respiration.
• Respiration uses glucose from food and oxygen
from the air we breathe.
• When we move we need more energy than when at
rest, so we need more oxygen. This is why our
breathing rate increases when we exercise.
Explaining the results
Blood oxygen level, heart rate and exercise
• Blood carries oxygen to cells where it is needed.
• Blood is pumped around the body by the heart. We
feel this as our pulse.
• When we move we need more oxygen to reach the
cells. The heart pumps blood around the body more
quickly so our heart rate increases.
• Blood oxygen level stays the same when
we exercise because increased breathing
rate provides more oxygen.
Explaining the results
What affects peak flow?
• Peak flow is the maximum
speed of air during a forced
breath out.
• Peak flow depends on height.
• People with asthma often
have a reduced peak flow as
asthma restricts the airways.
Explaining the results
Why does expiratory tidal volume increase
after exercising?
• When we exercise vigorously, breathing rate
increases to supply the cells with oxygen for
respiration.
• The body gets rid of carbon dioxide, a waste
product of respiration, by breathing it out.
• Increases in tidal volume during and after exercise
allow both of these things to happen.
Your results
What is the capacity of your lungs?
Upload your own vital capacity
data to the In the Zone ‘Live
Data Zone’ and see how you
compare to other students
across the UK.
Visit www.getinthezone.org.uk/livedatazone
Your results
How does breathing affect sporting performance?
Use data from the ‘Live Data Zone’ to help you
answer the questions below.
1 Describe any difference seen between the vital
capacity of males and females.
2 Does height affect vital capacity? If so, how?
3 How do the vital capacities of people who take part
in different sports compare?
Your results
How does breathing affect sporting performance?
Discuss how breathing
impacts upon sporting
performance.
Use your results on
breathing rate, heart rate
and expiratory tidal volume
as well as other observable
changes during exercise.
Improving performance
Professor Alison McConnell, of Brunel University’s
Centre for Sports Medicine and Human
Performance, has studied breathing in athletes and
researched the effects that breathing training can
have on sporting performance.
Breathing rate
(Experiment A) is one
of the measurements
that Alison uses in her
research.
©Alison McConnell
Professor Alison
McConnell
Improving performance
‘Proper use of breath provides
essential oxygen to working muscles
and the brain, which in return aids
the body to work at its optimum level.
Being aware of how breath affects
the body can help the dancer
develop a finely tuned instrument.’
The experiments you have carried
out give you information about
breathing and movement.
©Wayne McGregor Random
Dance: Ravi Deepres
Odette Hughes,
Associate Director of
Wayne McGregor |
Random Dance
Improving performance
‘Psychologists use data from
experiments like you have done to
help athletes change their
breathing patterns and help them
to relax, e.g. deep breathing using
their diaphragm muscle rather
than their chest muscles.
Try it. Take a deep, slow breath
trying to keep your chest still. Use
only your diaphragm muscle to
inhale.’
Simon Drane,
sports psychologist,
English Institute of
Sport
In the Zone
On your marks… get set… breathe is the Ages 11–14 component of the
In the Zone schools experiments.
In the Zone is the Wellcome Trust’s major UK initiative inspired by the
2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It has been awarded the London
2012 Inspire Mark and is part of Get Set +, the official London 2012
education programme.
For more information about In the Zone, the ‘Live Data Zone’ and
downloadable teacher resources go to: www.getinthezone.org.uk.
In the Zone resources are, unless otherwise stated, licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 UK:England And Wales License. This means
that, unless indicated that restrictions apply, you can copy, share and adapt materials as
much as you like, as long as it is not for commercial use.
Credits
In the Zone is commissioned by the Wellcome Trust and
delivered by a consortium led by Pearson Education and
Guardian Professional
Pearson Education Consortium
Teacher and student materials produced by Pearson
Education Ltd
Illustrations by Oxford Designers and Illustrators
Author
Jennifer Stafford-Brown, Chief Examiner and Senior
Standards Verifier
Photo Shoot School – Farringdon Community College,
Farringdon, Oxfordshire
Advisors and Contributors to In the Zone
Ages 11-14 PowerPoint presentation
Alison McConnell, Brunel University
Simon Drane, English Institute of Sport
Odette Hughes, Wayne McGregor | Random Dance
Picture credits
The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind
permission to reproduce their photographs:
(Key: b-bottom; c-centre; l-left; r-right; t-top)
Alamy Images: Buzz Pictures 2; Alison McConnell: 17; Getty
Images: Amwell / Stone 9; Shutterstock.com: Diego Barbieri
8l, F.C.G 8r, Lev Radin 7, Schmid Christophe 8b; Additional
images by Clark Wiseman / Studio8
Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and
we apologise in advance for any unintentional omissions. We
would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in
any subsequent edition of this publication.
Where material is owned by a third party, e.g. some
photographs, certain restrictions may apply that you have to
comply with. In particular, where a copyright line is included on
a photograph you must not modify, adapt, or remove that photo
from its context.
Thanks to BBC Learning ‘Class Clips’ which feature in the Notes for Slides 1, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12 and 13.
The website links to 3rd party material, which are used in this presentation, were correct and up-to-date at the time of
publication. It is essential for teachers to preview each weblink before using it in class so as to ensure that the URL is
still accurate, relevant and appropriate.
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