On your marks… get set… breathe 11-14 On your marks… get set… breathe Peter Colat, a Swiss freediver, smashed a previous world record when he held his breath underwater for… …19 minutes and 21 seconds. ©Alamy Images: Buzz Pictures Learning objectives At the end of the lessons, you will be able to: • measure breathing rate, pulse rate, lung volume, expiratory tidal volume, peak flow and blood oxygen level, and describe how these change following various physical activities • describe the role of the respiratory system in physical activity Learning objectives • explain how sportsmen and women, and the professionals they work with, use science to help them improve their performance • critically analyse and evaluate evidence from observations and experiments • plan and carry out practical and investigative activities, both individually or in groups. Background science Breathing takes oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body. air goes in and out muscles contract and relax Breathing is the way that air is forced in and out of the lungs. Background science Gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli. Oxygen moves into the blood and carbon dioxide is removed from the blood into the alveoli. Background science The lungs contain around 300-500 million alveoli. The surface area of the alveoli is around the same size as a tennis court! ©Lev Radin Background science Do all activities affect breathing in the same way? ©Shutterstock.com: Diego Barbieri ©Schmid Christophe ©F.C.G Background science Do all activities affect breathing in the same way? Archers breathe in and take aim, then release the arrow. They hold their breath to steady their body. ©Getty Images: Amwell / Stone Dancers must control their breathing carefully. Breathing and upper body movement involve the same muscles so can interfere with each other. Explaining the results Why does breathing rate increase after exercise? • We use energy all the time, even when we are resting. • Energy is released during respiration. • Respiration uses glucose from food and oxygen from the air we breathe. • When we move we need more energy than when at rest, so we need more oxygen. This is why our breathing rate increases when we exercise. Explaining the results Blood oxygen level, heart rate and exercise • Blood carries oxygen to cells where it is needed. • Blood is pumped around the body by the heart. We feel this as our pulse. • When we move we need more oxygen to reach the cells. The heart pumps blood around the body more quickly so our heart rate increases. • Blood oxygen level stays the same when we exercise because increased breathing rate provides more oxygen. Explaining the results What affects peak flow? • Peak flow is the maximum speed of air during a forced breath out. • Peak flow depends on height. • People with asthma often have a reduced peak flow as asthma restricts the airways. Explaining the results Why does expiratory tidal volume increase after exercising? • When we exercise vigorously, breathing rate increases to supply the cells with oxygen for respiration. • The body gets rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, by breathing it out. • Increases in tidal volume during and after exercise allow both of these things to happen. Your results What is the capacity of your lungs? Upload your own vital capacity data to the In the Zone ‘Live Data Zone’ and see how you compare to other students across the UK. Visit www.getinthezone.org.uk/livedatazone Your results How does breathing affect sporting performance? Use data from the ‘Live Data Zone’ to help you answer the questions below. 1 Describe any difference seen between the vital capacity of males and females. 2 Does height affect vital capacity? If so, how? 3 How do the vital capacities of people who take part in different sports compare? Your results How does breathing affect sporting performance? Discuss how breathing impacts upon sporting performance. Use your results on breathing rate, heart rate and expiratory tidal volume as well as other observable changes during exercise. Improving performance Professor Alison McConnell, of Brunel University’s Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance, has studied breathing in athletes and researched the effects that breathing training can have on sporting performance. Breathing rate (Experiment A) is one of the measurements that Alison uses in her research. ©Alison McConnell Professor Alison McConnell Improving performance ‘Proper use of breath provides essential oxygen to working muscles and the brain, which in return aids the body to work at its optimum level. Being aware of how breath affects the body can help the dancer develop a finely tuned instrument.’ The experiments you have carried out give you information about breathing and movement. ©Wayne McGregor Random Dance: Ravi Deepres Odette Hughes, Associate Director of Wayne McGregor | Random Dance Improving performance ‘Psychologists use data from experiments like you have done to help athletes change their breathing patterns and help them to relax, e.g. deep breathing using their diaphragm muscle rather than their chest muscles. Try it. Take a deep, slow breath trying to keep your chest still. Use only your diaphragm muscle to inhale.’ Simon Drane, sports psychologist, English Institute of Sport In the Zone On your marks… get set… breathe is the Ages 11–14 component of the In the Zone schools experiments. In the Zone is the Wellcome Trust’s major UK initiative inspired by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It has been awarded the London 2012 Inspire Mark and is part of Get Set +, the official London 2012 education programme. For more information about In the Zone, the ‘Live Data Zone’ and downloadable teacher resources go to: www.getinthezone.org.uk. In the Zone resources are, unless otherwise stated, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 UK:England And Wales License. This means that, unless indicated that restrictions apply, you can copy, share and adapt materials as much as you like, as long as it is not for commercial use. Credits In the Zone is commissioned by the Wellcome Trust and delivered by a consortium led by Pearson Education and Guardian Professional Pearson Education Consortium Teacher and student materials produced by Pearson Education Ltd Illustrations by Oxford Designers and Illustrators Author Jennifer Stafford-Brown, Chief Examiner and Senior Standards Verifier Photo Shoot School – Farringdon Community College, Farringdon, Oxfordshire Advisors and Contributors to In the Zone Ages 11-14 PowerPoint presentation Alison McConnell, Brunel University Simon Drane, English Institute of Sport Odette Hughes, Wayne McGregor | Random Dance Picture credits The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce their photographs: (Key: b-bottom; c-centre; l-left; r-right; t-top) Alamy Images: Buzz Pictures 2; Alison McConnell: 17; Getty Images: Amwell / Stone 9; Shutterstock.com: Diego Barbieri 8l, F.C.G 8r, Lev Radin 7, Schmid Christophe 8b; Additional images by Clark Wiseman / Studio8 Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and we apologise in advance for any unintentional omissions. We would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in any subsequent edition of this publication. Where material is owned by a third party, e.g. some photographs, certain restrictions may apply that you have to comply with. In particular, where a copyright line is included on a photograph you must not modify, adapt, or remove that photo from its context. Thanks to BBC Learning ‘Class Clips’ which feature in the Notes for Slides 1, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12 and 13. The website links to 3rd party material, which are used in this presentation, were correct and up-to-date at the time of publication. It is essential for teachers to preview each weblink before using it in class so as to ensure that the URL is still accurate, relevant and appropriate.