Nutrition and Optimum Health HEAL4002 Introduction to Health Knowledge Relates to Learning Outcomes 1 and 2 1. “Describe the concepts of health and wellness and holistic approaches to these concepts identifying health behaviours and factors influencing choice and change in health behaviour.” 2. “Identify the social, cultural, economic and cultural influences on health status, behaviour and development.” Course Descriptor Intro HK 4002 Sem 2 2011 Learning Outcomes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define key terms. Briefly review the structures, mechanisms, and processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Identify and explain why each major nutrient is necessary for nutrition and give examples of dietary sources for each one. List factors that affect dietary patterns/nutritional status. Describe clinical signs of altered nutrition. Describe manifestations of altered nutrition/assessment. Key Terms digestion absorption metabolism excretion BMI – body mass index carbohydrates proteins vitamins minerals anorexia anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa bariatric Dysphagia mastication fibre peristalsis segmentation Digestive System Swallowing and Choking The Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Organs Mouth – anus mouth pharynx oesophagus stomach small intestine large intestine Accessory tongue salivary glands teeth liver pancreas gallbladder Digestive System - Functions Digestion Absorption Metabolism Excretion Digestion “process by which the body breaks down foods and either absorbs them or excretes them” Donatelle, 2011 pg 258) Mechanical: (physical movement) Peristalsis Segmentation Chemical Breakdown: Enzymes Other secretions http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/animations.cfm?id=1&debug=0 Absorption Nutrients absorbed by: Passive diffusion Osmosis Active transport Metabolism Catabolic processes Anabolic processes Carbohydrate metabolsim Fat metabolism Protein metabolism Digestion and Absorption Nutrition Classification Carbohydrates Protein Vitamins Minerals Fats Water Carbohydrates Simple Complex Main function – to provide energy Protein sparing action Proteins Complete: Incomplete Complementary Main functions include: Growth , maintenance and repair of body tissues Forms muscles, skin and hair Maintains fluid balance, blood clotting Energy Lipids (or fats) Component of all body cells Ideally – about 20% of body weight Functions include: Insulation Protection Energy Two Types of Lipids Saturated fats e.g. dairy products. Not good for heart health. Unsaturated fats e.g. nuts, avocados, olives. Good for heart health. Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin A D E K Water-soluble B-complex vitamins Vitamin C Minerals - - Build body tissue Regulates metabolism Calcium Iron Sodium Potassium Iodine Fluoride Water Necessary to maintain cell function Water constitutes 60% - 70% of total body weight Fluids = liquids, fresh fruit and vegetables Factors affecting nutritional status income educational level nutrition knowledge ability to read food labels ability to access shops physical functional level food allergies and intolerances dentition problems with chewing and swallowing loss of partner or significant other religious and dietary practices Factors affecting nutrient absorption alcohol consumption decreased liver function decreased renal function decreased GI function polypharmacy / chronic medications cancer and cancer treatment disease/pathological process Clinical signs of altered nutrition general appearance weight posture nervous system control GI function cardiovascular function general vitality hair skin (general) face and neck lips mouth, oral membranes gums tongue teeth eyes neck (glands) nails legs, feet skeleton Manifestations of Poor Nutrition overweight obesity underweight recent significant weight gain or loss decreased energy altered bowel patterns altered skin, teeth, hair, and mucous membranes impact on activities of daily living References Crisp, J., & Taylor, C. (2009). Potter & Perry’s fundamentals of nursing. (3rd ed.). Chatswood: Elsevier. Donatelle, R. J. (2009). Health: The basics. (8th ed.). San Fransisco: Pearson Education. Harris, P., Nagy, S., & Vardaxis, N. (2006). Mosby’s dictionary of medicine, nursing & health professions. Marrickville: Elsevier. Marieb, E. (2004). Human anatomy & physiology. (6th ed.). Pearson, Benjamin, Cummings: San Francisco. Thompson.(2002). Mosby’s clinical nursing. (5th ed.). Mosby Inc. Retrieved March 1, 2010 from http://www.nursingconsult.com/das/book/89786589-2/view/1043/362.html/4-u1.0-B0-323-011950..50030-5--cesec113_7800?sid=682608581&SEQNO=2&bookft=true&bookftset=1&bbSearchType=single.