SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE WRITING - ISKO

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SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE
WRITING
Professor Charles O. Uwadia
[email protected], [email protected]
At the Conference on Transition in Observation –Knowledge – Intelligence
(TOKI2014) held at the University of Lagos, August 20 – 22, 2014.
2
Outline of Presentation
 Introduction
 Components of a Scientific Article/Contents
 Conclusion
3
Introduction - Essence of
Article writing
 Why write a Scientific article?
 A way of expressing/documenting or ventilating the
outcome of research findings and conclusions
 Foundation or precursor of Scientific article writing is
conducting research in a topical field
4
Introduction - Conducting
Research
 [Shuttleworth, 2008] describes research as “..any
gathering of data, information and facts for the
advancement of knowledge”.
 [Creswell, 2008] states that “Research is a process of
steps used to collect and analyse information to
increase our understanding of a topic or issue”.
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Introduction - Major steps in
conducting scientific research
[Hoogenbroom and Manske, 2012]
 Identification of research problem
 Survey and critique of literature/literature review
 State purpose of research
 State research questions
 Specify a Conceptual framework – could be a set of
hypotheses
 Methodology (for data collection)
 Data Collection
 Analysis and interpretation of data
 Reporting and evaluating research
 Communicating research findings and
recommendations.
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Introduction..
 Products of scientific articles fit for
submission to a peer-reviewed journal
requires substantial effort when composing
/ creating, writing, and submitting the
article and manuscripts (time consuming
and often daunting).
 Barriers to effective writing include – lack
of experience, poor writing habits, writing
anxiety, unfamiliarity with the requirements
of
scholarly
writing,
resistance
to
feedback.
7
Introduction - Criteria
considered by Reviewers
 Criteria that guide Reviewers in accepting articles
for publication include:
 Importance,
timeliness,
relevance,
and
prevalence of the problem addressed.
 the
quality of writing (well-written, clear,
straightforward, easy to follow , and logical)
 appropriate design, rigorous, comprehensive
 literature review-focused, up-to-date
 use of sufficiently large sample
8
Introduction – Some reasons
why articles are rejected
 Wrong or over-interpretation of results
 Use of inappropriate,
insufficiently described
instruments.
sub-optimal
population
 inadequate or biased samples.
 Poorly written or deficient to follow text
or
or
9
Introduction - Format
 Introduction, Literature review, Methodology,
Results, Discussion, Conclusion, References,
Appendices.
 Usually, Results are written first, then,
Introduction and Discussion; Conclusion and
References. Abstract should come last.
 Communication Skills –Ideas, procedures, and
outcomes/results should be described as
accurately as possible.
 Use of Figures and graphics – Do everything
possible to avoid plagiarism; ample citations
are required to acknowledge consulted works.
10
Components of a Scientific
Article
 Title – Should be specific and describe the contents of
the paper
 Should summarise the outcomes/results of the article;
should not be unnecessarily long
 Authors – Person who did the work and wrote the
article is generally listed as the first/lead author of the
article
 Other researchers who made substantial contributions to
the work are also listed
 Mentor’s name could be listed if permission is sought and
granted
11
Components of a Scientific
Article..
 Abstract – Summary of article/study written
in third person/reported speech
 Should be brief, accurate, and concise
 Structure and size are usually provide in
instructions to authors
 Usually written last due to possible changes or
revisions in article
12
Components of a Scientific
Article..
 Introduction and Literature review:
o Significance of topic.
o Information gap in the available literature
associated with the topic.
o Literature review in support of key
questions.
o Purposes/objectives and hypotheses.
o Focused literature review.
o Citation of literature should be consistent
and conform to publisher’s standard
13
Components of a Scientific
Article..
 Methodology clearly describes specific design
of study, and provides clear and concise
description of procedures performed. Include:
 Population, equipment, and tools used.
 How population, equipment, and tools
were prepared and used during study
 Protocol used
 Outcomes and how they were measured
 Methods used for data analysis.
 Statistical methods used to analyze data.
14
Components of a Scientific
Article..
 Results, Discussions and Conclusions
-Report results neutrally as obtained;
-Discuss where result is similar or different
from other
published results and why;
-Final summative statement that reflect
the flow and outcomes of the entire
paper.
15
Components of a Scientific
Article..
 References – Should be relevant to article
 All listed References should be cited in the body of article
 All cited references should be listed under References
 Reference listing should conform to guidelines of the
publisher
 Web references should indicate date of
download/reference
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Conclusion
 Writing scientific articles suitable for publication in a
peer-review journals is both an art and science
 It involves identifying a genuine story to tell, and telling
the story well
 The bedrock of any genuine story telling is Research
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References
1.
Creswell, J. W, (2008); Educational Research:
Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating quantitative
and Qualitative Research. Upper saddle River, NJ.
Pearson education Inc.
2.
Hoogenboom, B. J, (2012); Manske, R. C; How to
Write a Scientific Article; International Journal of
Sports Therapy, Vol. 7(5).
3.
Shuttleworth, M (2008); Definition of Research,
www.explorable.com; Accessed on August 3, 2014
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