3. Rain forests
A. Moist densely wooded areas
B. a strip of land that divides the desert from wetter areas.
C. open grassland with scattered trees
D. a giant sea of sand
In eastern Africa rifts formed the southeastern edge.
Rifts- are long, deep valley formed by the movement of the earth.
Sub Sahara Africa- or Africa south of the
The main rivers in Africa are
Along the Niger in West Africa civilizations arose.
The Niger river is Africa’s great river it is a source of water, food and transportation.
In the middle section of the Niger river are marshes. This is called inland delta.
What is Africa’s great river?
1. A typical West African family was an extended family.
Usually the extended family included the father, mother, children and close relatives in one household.
There was also another type of group. They were called age-sets.
Age-sets- men who had been born within the same two or three years formed special bonds.
Family-Loyalty to family and age-sets helped the people of the village work together.
Women- Like the men the women worked very hard. They farmed, collected firewood, ground grain, and carried water along with raising children.
Traditional beliefs- was importance of family.
Another common belief- had to do with nature.
This is called animalism.
Animalism- the belief that bodies of water, animals, trees, and other natural objects have spirits.
Long, deep valleys formed by the movement of the earth’s crust are called
D. earthquake zones
West Africa -was rich with fertile soils and minerals , especially gold and iron.
Other places in Africa had a lot of salt.
Ghana became a powerful state because it gained control of the valuable routes.
The population of Ghana increased.
Around 500 BC- west Africa made a discovery that would change the region.
They found out they could heat different kinds of rock to get a hard metal.
By heating the iron again they could shape it into different things, like tools.
The earliest people to use this technology was the Noks.
The Noks used iron to make iron farm tools.
1. who were the people used this new technology?
West Africa became to trade with others that were thousands of miles away.
West Africans used to venture out into the
Sahara to trade.
They used Caravans to to make the trip.
Camels were a faster resource they can travel in months.
It was dangerous in the desert, thieves would try to attack and caravans would lose they way.
1. West Africa’s salt and gold mines became a great source of wealth.
Camels carried salt from mines of the Sahara to the south to trade for gold.
1. The belief that natural objects have spirits is called.
Ghana lay between the Sahara desert and the forests, that is why it was a good place to trade.
Salt came from the north (Sahara)
Gold came from the south (along the Niger).
They liked gold for its beauty and salt to put in foods.
Silent barter is a process in which people exchange goods without ever contacting each other.
Because of all the trade, Ghana became powerful. Their armies became strong.