Explicit Instruction - Effective and Efficient Teaching

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Vision: Every child in every district receives the instruction that they need and deserve…every day.
Explicit Instruction
Effective and Efficient Teaching
Oregon Response to Intervention
1
Turn right at the BIG Y
Targets
• Create excitement and urgency for
refining practice of teaching using explicit
instruction
• Build a community of teachers to support
one another in implementing effective,
efficient teaching practices
• Provide opportunities to discuss what does
learning look like, sound like?
• What are kids saying? Teachers?
Administrators?
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Acknowledgements
• Content was based on the work of…
–Dr. Anita Archer
–Dylan Willam
–The Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc.
(CORE)
–John Hattie
What is Explicit Instruction?
• Explicit instruction is a systematic instructional
approach that includes a set of delivery and
design procedures derived from effective
schools research……….
Ideas that Work
• …unambiguous and direct approach to
teaching that incorporates instruction design and
delivery.
Archer & Hughes, 2011
5
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Teacher ratings and student
growth
Reading
Mathematics
0.6
Teacher value-added
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
Unsatisfactory
Basic
Proficient
Distinguished
impacts
student
WhichWhat
ones make
sense?
Whichachievement?
ones are surprising?
Effective teaching Effect
variables
size
Other variables
Effect
size
Formative Evaluation
+0.90 Socioeconomic Status
+0.57
Comprehensive
interventions for students
with LD
+0.77 Parental Involvement
+0.51
Teacher Clarity
Computer based
+0.75 instruction*
+0.37
Reciprocal Teaching
+0.74 School Finances
+0.23
Feedback
+0.73 Interactions*
+0.19
Teacher-Student
Relationships
+0.72 Family Structure
+0.17
Direct Instruction
+0.59 Retention
-0.16
Aptitude by Treatment
John Hattie, Visible Learning, 2009
Explicit Instruction and Discovery
Not an either or - but a when.
Explicit Instruction
Discovery
Little or no
A great deal of
background knowledge background knowledge
in the domain
History of difficulty,
of failure
History of success
8
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Differences Learning to Read
Population Journey to Reading
Instructional
%
Requirements
Easy: children read
Need no formal decoding
5
before starting school
instruction
35
Relatively Easy
Learn to read regardless
of instructional approach
40
Formidable Challenge
Need systematic and
explicit instruction
20
One of the most difficult
tasks to be mastered in
school
Need intensive,
systematic, direct, explicit
instruction
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Why Explicit Instruction?
• ALL students benefit from Explicit
Instruction
• It is essential for struggling learners
• Improve student outcomes, regardless of
content area or core program used.
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Essential Features of Systematic
Instruction
1. Clear expectations about what is to be
learned
2. Clarity of presentation (Instructional
Delivery)
3. Multiple opportunities for student responses
4. Active monitoring of responses
5. Frequent evaluation and feedback
6. Relentless, practice, practice, practice
Christenson, 1989
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Goals for Explicit Instruction:
• Provide bell to bell instruction
• Select critical,
– breaking complex tasks into obtainable pieces
• Design organized, systematic, intentional
lessons
– include an opening, a body, and a closing
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Goals for Explicit Instruction:
•
•
•
•
•
Elicit responses
Monitor accuracy o
Provide immediate feedback
Provide judicious practice on skills
Promotes positive relationships peers and
teachers
• Helpful to all learners, absolutely
essential for struggling or
disadvantaged learners
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Instructional Routines
• Anita
Talk Time
• Coffee please answer the following question:
– What are essential components for
effective and efficient, results driven
instruction? (EI)
• Cream please answer the following question:
• Where/when do you use, see explicit instruction
used on your campus?
• With extra time switch questions
Oregon Response to
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Power of E to 3!
ENGAGE
ENERGY
EXCITE
Oregon Response to
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What do you bring?
Do you recall a time when you had
a learning experience like this?
• Thumbs Up= YES
Oregon Response to
• Thumbs Down= NO
www.oregonrti.org
Video Observation
Talk Time
• Coffee please answer the following question:
– What routines did you notice?
• Cream please answer the following question:
– What active engagement strategies were
utilized?
• With extra time switch questions
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Essential Features of Systematic
Instruction
1. Clear expectations about what is to be
learned
2. Clarity of presentation (Instructional
Delivery)
3. Multiple opportunities for student responses
4. Active monitoring of responses
5. Frequent evaluation and feedback
6. Relentless, practice, practice, practice
Christenson, 1989
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Clarity of presentation
• Modeling or demonstrating the skill (I do it)
• Providing prompted or guided practice (we
do it)
• Providing structured partnership (y’all do
it)
• Providing unprompted practice (you do it)
I do, We do, Y’all do, You do
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Progression of the Lesson
Teacher Responsibility
“I do it”
Focus Lesson
Guided
Instruction
“We do it”
Collaborative
“Y’all do it”
Independent
“You do it”
Student Responsibility
Fisher, D., & Frey, N.
I do it (Model)
What it is
What it is NOT
• Teacher demonstrates,
models, explains, and
describes thinking in a
clear and concise way
• Think-alouds
• Providing several
models
• A time to interrogate
students about their
thinking (guess what’s in
the teacher’s brain)
• A time to simply “tell”
students things
(regurgitate info)
• A standard posted on
the wall that you can
just point to
Oregon Response to
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I do it (Examples)
• “Watch me. the sounds are /m/, /a/, /n/, so the
word is man.”
• “The main idea is the most important part the
author wants you to remember from a paragraph.
So I’m going to read aloud this passage, and at
the end of each paragraph, I’m going to stop and
ask myself two questions, “Who or what is this
paragraph about?” and “What’s the most
important thing about the who or what in this
paragraph?” If I can answer those two questions,
I probably understand the main idea the author
wanted me to get out of that paragraph.”
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Teacher Responsibility
“I do it”
Focus Lesson
Guided
Instruction
“We do it”
Collaborative
“Y’all do it”
Independent
“You do it”
Student Responsibility
Fisher, D., & Frey, N.
We do it
What it is
What it is NOT
• Guided practice through
the use of teacher
prompts or cues to
assist with
understanding
• Taking students where
they are and guiding to
next step
• A script to read from
• Just a repeat of the
instructions
• Not every day, with
every single student
Amount of “We do it” is what varies most depending
on the needs of the learner
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
We do it (Examples)
• “Let’s do it together now. Follow along with me as
I point to each sound and blend the word. The
sounds are /m/, /a/, /n/, so the word is man.”
• “Now, for the next couple of paragraphs, you’re
going to help me figure out the who or what of
each paragraph and the most important thing
about the who or what of each paragraph.” Read
aloud the next couple of paragraphs, stopping to
get responses from students.
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Teacher Responsibility
“I do it”
Focus Lesson
Guided
Instruction
“We do it”
Collaborative
“Y’all do it”
Independent
“You do it”
Student Responsibility
Fisher, D., & Frey, N.
Y’all do it (check understanding)
What it is
What it is NOT
• Small groups of 2-5
students working
together
(heterogeneous)
• Students consolidate
their thinking and
understanding
• Interact and negotiate
their understanding with
peers
• Individual accountability
• Not time to introduce
new information to
students
• Not simply group work
where one group
product is produced
• Not ability grouping
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Y’all do it (Examples)
• “Now, for the last couple of paragraphs, you’re
going figure out the who or what of each
paragraph and the most important thing about
the who or what of each paragraph., with your
elbow partner. Partner 1 you will start by telling
your partner, The who or what in this
paragraph is… Partner 2, you will then tell your
partner, The most important thing about that
who or what is… “
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Teacher Responsibility
“I do it”
Focus Lesson
Guided
Instruction
“We do it”
Collaborative
“Y’all do it”
Independent
“You do it”
Student Responsibility
Fisher, D., & Frey, N.
You do it (assess)
What it is
What it is NOT
• An opportunity for
students to apply what
they have learned
• Goal of schooling
• Based on meaningful
learning activities
• Students take
responsibility for own
learning
• A pile of worksheets or
packets
• Rote memorization or
regurgitation time
• For newly or barely
learned tasks
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
You do it (Examples)
• “Now, on your own, you will read this 3
paragraph story and for each paragraph,
you will write down:
1. Who or what the paragraph is about.
2. The most important thing about the who or
what”
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Teacher Responsibility
“I do it”
Focus Lesson
Guided
Instruction
“We do it”
Collaborative
“Y’all do it”
Independent
“You do it”
Student Responsibility
Fisher, D., & Frey, N.
Clarity of presentation
• Modeling or demonstrating the skill (I do it)
• Providing prompted or guided practice (we
do it)
• Providing structured partnership (y’all do
it)
• Providing unprompted practice (you do it)
I do, We do, Y’all do, You do
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Essential Features of Systematic
Instruction
1. Clear expectations about what is to be
learned
2. Clarity of presentation (Instructional Delivery)
3. Multiple opportunities for student responses
4. Active monitoring of responses
5. Frequent evaluation and feedback
6. Relentless, practice, practice, practice
Christenson, 1989
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Be explicit! Don’t let them get lost!
Now...let’s see it in action!
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Now...let’s see it in action!
Oregon Response to
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Welcome Back!
Time to Share with Peers
Step 1.
• Grab your demo lesson
card
• Go to an assigned corner
with your card
• Four Corners
– Primary K-1
– Primary 2-3
– Intermediate
– Instructional Leaders
Oregon Response to
Step 2.
• Share with at least
two people new to you
• Introduce yourself
• Coffee share one idea
from your
demonstration lessons
observation
• Cream share one idea
• Move on to new
person
Ten minutes
for each
sharing session (5minutes
each to speak)
www.oregonrti.org
Welcome Back Time to Share with
Peers
Step 1.
• Grab your demo lesson
card
• Go to an assigned corner
with your card
• Four Corners
–
–
–
–
Primary K-1
Primary 2-3
Intermediate
Instructional Leaders
Oregon Response to
Step 2.
• Share with at least
two people new to you
• Introduce yourself
• Coffee share one idea
from your
demonstration lessons
observation
• Cream share one idea
• Move on to new
person
Ten minutes
for each
sharing session (5minutes
each to speak)
www.oregonrti.org
See you in 15 minutes!
Oregon Response to
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Welcome Back
Oregon Response to
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Where You’ve Been
• You have developed
conceptual
understanding of:
– The Big Five, Active
Engagement, Explicit
Instruction,
• You have had active
participation with peers
and processing time
• You have seen
demonstration lessons
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Where You’re Going
• We will continue to
build on your
conceptual
understanding and
build skill
development in
feedback.
• We will close the day
with a call to action!
Math, OTR, CCSS
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
The Essentials of Feedback
• Feedback
– can double the rate of learning
•Dylan William (2011)
– has an effect size of .79
•Hattie (2012)
– informs current level of performance
– closes the gap between current performance
and expected performance
– must give specific ways to close the gap
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
How do you receive feedback???
• One minute quick write
– At work, at home, at the gym, on the
field...from friends...
– Circle one area where it was helpful
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Talk Time
• Coffee please answer the following question:
– How was the feedback helpful?
• Cream please answer the following question:
– Where/when do you provide feedback?
• With extra time switch questions
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
The missing element re: instructional Improvement?
ACTIONABLE FEEDBACK
“Feedback is the breakfast of champions!”Kevin Feldman
7 Keys to Effective Feedback
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Goal Referenced
Tangible and Transparent
Actionable
User-friendly
Timely
Ongoing
Consistent
• Grant Wiggins (EL, 2012)
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
7 Keys to Effective Feedback
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Goal Referenced
Tangible and Transparent
Actionable
User-friendly
Timely
Ongoing
Consistent
• Grant Wiggins (EL, 2012)
Oregon Response to
www.oregonrti.org
Provide scaffolding that enhances success
53
Oregon Response to
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Call to Action!
• Application Cards Activity
(Real World Application of learned material)
– Prompt:
• With the information I received today I commit
to_____________, by_______________
with_____________. I will need______________
to help me successful.
• Respond to the prompt on a piece of
paper. Five minutes to respond.
Oregon Response to
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Call to Action
• Whip- table share, 10 minutes
• Discuss as a table team 10 minutes
• Choose one person to be prepared to
share with the group
• Group share
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Prizes
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Prizes
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