Young children
growing, thinking, and
learning
Focus Questions
What is DAP?
What are five major theories of development?
What patterns make up physical, social, emotional, and
intellectual development?
How can knowledge about child development affect curriculum
planning, identifying special needs, and understanding the
relationship of diversity?
Developmentally Appropriate Practices
(DAP)
Age Appropriate
Early Childhood = birth to age eight
Individually Appropriate
Theories of Development
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Behaviorist
Maturationist
Constructivist
Social Learning
Ecological Systems Theory
Behaviorist
Stimulus Response Theory
Reinforcements
Positive
Negative
Punishments
Operant conditioning
Extinguishing behavior
Maturationist Theroy
“Unfolding of development”
Experience play less important role
Child’s developmental level most important
determiner of social and intellectual success
Constructivist Theory
Jean Piaget
Assimilation
Equilibrium
Equilibration
Lev Vygotsky
Social-cultural influences
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Multiple Intelligences Theory
Howard Gardner
Nine Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-mathematical
Spatial
Bodily-kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
Extstentialist
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory
Modeling
Ecological Systems Theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Child develops through compels systems of
relationships
Cultural environments
Cultural milieu
Not static, but dynamic
Theoretical Influences on Teacher
Planning
Implementation of
instruction
Theoretical Influences on observations
Provide different
Points of view
Children’s Development
Physical
Social
Emotional
Intellectual
Patterns of Physical Development
Movements become organized into patterns
Growth is cephalocaudal (proceeds from head to
toe)
Growth is proximodistal (proceeds from center
of the body outward)
Rate of development is vaiable and related to
environmental factors ( nutrition, freedom to
practice, etc)
Patterns of social Development
Personality
Self-Esteem
Role of Play
Social Relationships
Aggression
Sex- Role Identification
Erikson’s Stages of
Psychological
Development in Children
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and
Doubt
Imitative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Patterns of Intellectual Development
Vygotsky
Inersubjectivity
Scaffolding Make –
Believe
Piaget
Brain Research
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete
Operational
Theories
Imaging techniques
Brain becomes
“wired”
Child Development and Curriculum
Planning
Children with Special Needs
Observe development
Seek programs as needed
Celebrating Diversity
Development must be viewed within framework
of culture
Impact of language within culture
Impact of motor control encouraged
within culture
Teachers must be sensitive to cultural
expectations
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Young children growing, thinking, and learning