Exercise and respiration and the circulatory system – student ppt to

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Exercise and respiration and the
circulatory system.
B2 - Training and the
Pulmonary system
B.2.1 Define total lung capacity, vital capacity,
tidal volume and ventilation rate.
Total lung capacity : volume of air in the lungs after a
maximum inhalation.
Vital capacity : maximum volume of air that can
be exhaled after a maximum
inhalation.
Tidal volume : volume of air taken in or out
with each inhalation or
exhalation.
Ventilation rate : number of inhalations or
exhalations per minute (this term
is used, not breathing rate).
B.2.2 Explain the need for increases in tidal volume and
ventilation rate during exercise.
http://www.livestrong.com/article/288393-increase-intidal-volume-during-exercise/
Read the article then complete the sentences:
When you exercise you need to breath deeper because…..
When you exercise you need to breath more often
because…..
The ventilation and depth are controlled by negative
feedback.
What is the stimulus?
Where is the stimulus detected?
Draw a feedback loop to describe this.
B.2.3 Outline the effects of training on the pulmonary
system, including changes in ventilation rate at rest,
maximum ventilation rate and vital capacity.
http://www.normalbreathing.com/c-effects-ofexercise-on-the-respiratory-system.php Read
the article and try to make a summary table in
words rather than numbers…….:
B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output
and venous return.
Learn these definitions
Stroke volume : volume of blood pumped out
with each contraction of the
heart.
Cardiac output : volume of blood pumped out by
the heart per minute.
Venous return : volume of blood returning to
the heart via the veins per
minute.
B.3.2 Explain the changes in cardiac output and venous return
during exercise.
Why does the heart rate need to speed up when you exercise?
How is this speed up controlled?
What effect will speeding up the heart have on how much blood is pumped
out per minute?
What effect will pumping more blood out of the heart per minute have on the
amount of blood returning (venous return)?
B.3.3 Compare the distribution of blood flow at rest and
during exercise.
• Blood flow to the brain is unchanged during
exercise. Blood flow to the heart wall, skeletal
muscles and skin is increased, but blood flow to
the kidneys, stomach, intestines and other
abdominal organs is reduced.
• Find an/some image(s) to express this. Then
explain “why?” for each change or lack of
change?.......
B.3.4 Explain the effects of training on
heart rate and stroke volume, both at
rest and during exercise.
• Start here ----->
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/p
e/exercise/2_exercise_effectsoftraining_rev1.s
html now explain “why?”
B.3.5 Evaluate the risks and benefits of using EPO
(erythropoietin) and blood transfusions to improve
performance in sports
Using EPO (erythropoietin) as a
performance enhancer
Using blood transfusions as a
performance enhancer
Risks
Risks
Benefits
Benefits
B4 – Exercise and respiration
B.4.1 Define VO2 and VO2 max.
VO2 max is the maximum capacity of an individual's body to transport and use
oxygen during exercise, which reflects the physical fitness of the individual.
The name is derived from V - volume, O2 - oxygen, max - maximum.
This instrument measures the
amount of oxygen in the air
breathed in and compares it with
the amount in the air breathed
out as the test subject carries out
increasing levels of exercise.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ergospirometry_laboratory.jpg
B.4.2 Outline the roles of glycogen and
myoglobin in muscle fibres.
Glycogen is an glucose storage molecule in
muscles.
Myoglobin is an oxygen storage molecule in
muscles(Like heamoglobin but it remains in the
muscle.)
http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/images/1/19/Hemogl
obin.jpg
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