AP Literature
Characteristics of a Sonnet
 There
are two general types of sonnet:
Petrarchan or Italian
Shakespearean of English
 Sonnets
have 14 lines, which is the first
thing you should look for.
 The rhyme scheme is what determines
what type of sonnet it is, so you look at
the rhyme scheme to identify.
Rhyme Scheme
 Italian
Sonnets tend to have an end
rhyme that concludes with:
ababababcdecde (some variations of
that appear)
 Shakespearean Sonnets will always end in
a rhyming couplet (two lines). If you look
at the rhyming pattern, but ends with that
couplet, then it’s Shakespearean or
Form—Iambic Pentameter
 Sonnets
are written in iambic pentameter,
which means:
10 syllables per line
Five pairs of alternating unstressed and
stressed syllables
The rhythm in each line sounds like:
ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / baBUM
Characteristics (cont)
 Sonnets
are generally about love, religion,
politics, or about a theme.
 Sonnets are not usually “story” poems.
 Some poets play with the form of the
sonnet and place them in their longer
poems to highlight the form and themes
of the sonnet inside their poem (see
Mathew Arnold’s “Dover Beach” for
internal sonnet in his poem)
Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Browning
How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.
I love thee to the depth and breadth and height
My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight
For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.
I love thee to the level of everyday's
Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light.
I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;
I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.
I love thee with a passion put to use
In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith.
I love thee with a love I seemed to lose
With my lost saints, --- I love thee with the breath,
Smiles, tears, of all my life! --- and, if God choose,
I shall but love thee better after death.
Sonnet 116 by William Shakespeare
Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:
O no! it is an ever-fixed mark
That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.
Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle's compass come:
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
If this be error and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man ever loved.
Sonnet Recap…How Can You
 Does
it have 14 lines?
 Does it have an easy rhyme scheme that
gives it a rhythm?
 Does it end with a rhyming couplet? If
so…it’s easy to tell it’s a Shakespearean or
English Sonnet!
 Why does it matter? Sonnets use iambic
pentameter and have themes to them,
not stories.
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