Ashford University APA Guidelines Key Issues • • • • • • What is a “Style”? What to Cite Where to Cite How to Create In-Text Citations How to Create A Reference List Plagiarism What Is a Style? Essential information and standards that writers in a specific organization, institution, or field use to ensure clarity and consistency in written documents Common Styles • APA: Social Science, Counseling, and Education • • • • • • GPO: Government, Banking, and Insurance MLA: Humanities • AMA/NLM: Medicine AP: Journalism • Microsoft Manual Turabian: Humanities and Read Me First (Sun Microsystems): CSE: Natural Sciences High Tech Companies Chicago: Corporate • Various University and Proprietary Guides What a Style Addresses • Prescribes how to format your paper • States preferences for grammar and word usage • Prescribes the format for citing sources in the text of your paper: footnotes, endnotes, or parenthetical citations • Prescribes the format for citing sources at the end of your paper: Bibliography, Works Cited page, or Reference List Your Job as a Researcher • Find acceptable and appropriate research materials. • Paraphrase the materials (put it into your own words--quote sparingly) • Synthesize the materials (combine it with other research you found in your paper) • Format your paper and cite all sources in the approved style (APA) Approved Ashford Style APA 6th edition is the approved style for Ashford University undergraduate and graduate courses. What to Cite All ideas not your own, whether quoted or paraphrased, UNLESS the idea is common knowledge or the idea is easily verified Where to Cite APA requires that you cite each source twice: • In a brief citation in the text adjacent to the borrowed idea (usually the author and date) • In an alphabetical reference list at the end of your paper. How to Create In-Text Citations The in-text citation should enable the reader to find the source in the reference list. • Find examples of APA in-text citations in the Ashford Writing Center APA materials. • If you find a model just like your source, follow it exactly. If you don’t, find the model closest to yours, follow it, or modify it to fit your source. How to Create a Reference List • Find an example of a reference citation for your type of source (book, periodical, Web page, etc.) in the Ashford Writing Center APA reference examples. • Find a model similar to your source. If the model is just like yours, follow it exactly. If not, find the closest example and modify it or combine models for complete information. • Put all your sources in alphabetical order. What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism is representing another’s work as your own or closely adhering to the content or arrangement of work other than your own, without citation. It is literally theft. Plagiarism Policies • Plagiarism is a serious offense prohibited by University policy. • Faculty are required to report suspected plagiarism and a formal investigative procedure is conducted. Examples of Plagiarism Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional. Here are some plagiarism examples: • Submitting a paper written by someone other than yourself or “recycling” a paper you wrote for a previous course. • Submitting a paper you purchased on the Internet or found online. • Forgetting to include references for outside material you used in your paper. • Making up information because you forgot to record it during your research. Plagiarism Consequence Possible consequences if you are sfound guilty of plagiarism: Full or partial loss of assignment credit Full or partial loss of course credit Suspension from the University Expulsion from the University How to Avoid Plagiarism • Be organized; keep good notes of all sources you find. • Include in-text citations and references for all outside ideas, whether you quote or paraphrase (put them in your own words). • The Rule of Four—don’t use more than four words in a row from a source. Don’t just copy; put information in your own words. The Bottom Line • Start working on your papers and presentations early to allow time for research, writing, and editing. • Be organized in collecting research and documenting sources as you use them. • Refer to the materials here in the Ashford Writing Center on how to format your paper and properly cite your sources.