UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP A partnership between Orange County Department of Education and University of California, Irvine History Project History as a Discipline What is history? History is a representation of the past based upon interpretations of evidence (primary and secondary sources) available. Therefore, history is constructed knowledge. Why do history? History is not static. Historical representations change over time. New evidence comes to light Changes in technology Present concerns inform the ways historians think about the past As theories change, historians review existing evidence. Pose new questions. How do students typically view history? Students see history as the construction and memorization of a “factoid narrative.” Many see history as a finished story. It is names, dates, and places. See history as linear (one thing after another) and progressive (things are getting better) Students struggle with explaining change over time and recognizing significance. Students also magnify the role of individuals. Students often personify history--For example, China becomes a person. Fail to see the relevance of history Jigsaw Number off 1-5 1-How is Derek’s analysis an expression of historical empathy (page 8)? Why is empathy important for history? 2-What do contemporary historians believe we can know about the past (pages 10-11)? 3-What are the challenges of learning history from textbooks (pages 12-13)? 4-How does Ulrich’s A Midwife’s Tale contrast to textbook history (pages 13-15)? 5-How has historical writing changed in the last decades (page 15)? All like numbers gather together and discuss your question Form groups with numbers 1-5 and share out each of your answers with the group Historical Thinking Historians in the Field Students in the Classroom Ask research questions based upon new and existing information Students form and/or answer research questions of the lesson’s content Teachers Use primary and secondary sources to construct knowledge Students use primary and secondary sources to make reasoned interpretations and construct knowledge Why use historical thinking in teaching? Inquiry based approach Builds on prior knowledge Motivates student learning In-depth understanding Prioritizes essential questions Students analyze evidence to construct new meanings Develops critical thinking skills and academic literacy Common Core Standards: Literacy in History-Social Studies Key Ideas and details 1.Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2.Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3.Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Craft and Structure 4.Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5.Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6.Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7.Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8.Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9.Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Range of Reading Level and Text Complexity 10.Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. PRIMARY OR SECONDARY SOURCE adapted from History Project at UC Davis Definition According to the Library of Congress, primary sources are the raw materials of history — documents and objects which were created at the time under study. They are different from secondary sources - accounts or interpretations of events created by someone without firsthand experience. Some additional thoughts Primary sources are materials produced by people or groups directly involved in the event or topic under consideration. Think of them as first-hand information. Examples of primary sources include eyewitness accounts, speeches, letters and diaries, newspapers and magazines, tax and census data, marriage, birth and death records, works of art, and interviews. Secondary sources Secondary sources construct an explanation of the past based on primary sources and usually in consultation with other secondary sources. The best secondary sources will both report on events in the past as well as generalize, analyze, interpret and/or evaluate. Complexity Sources may be both primary and secondary— depending on your topic or question. WHAT TOOLS ARE AVAILABLE TO HELP STUDENTS BREAK DOWN A PRIMARY SOURCE? “Give us the tools, and we will finish the job.” THE 6 C’S!! What are we looking for the students to accomplish? An accurate summary of the source provided (who, what, where…) Accurate /thoughtful connections made between source and what was happening at that time and place in history. Bias and point of view are clearly identified. Students support their claims with specific examples from source. It is clear as to who created this source, when it was written, and what type of source it is. Interesting and thoughtful connections made between the source and what the students already know, or what they can relate it to. Student provides a thoughtful conclusion that closely connects to source How can the 6C’s be practiced in the classroom? Students might begin with 4 C’s Students work in cooperative groups (3-4 members), with each group responsible for using one of the 6C’s to analyze the source. Each group then shares with the class their analysis of the source, and the other students fill in the sections of the 6 C’s as they are discussed by each group. Students work in cooperative groups (3 members). Each student within the group is responsible for completing two sections of the 6 C’s. They then share their responses with the other group members. Groups are then selected to share their responses with the class. Making Primary Source Analysis Relevant for Students Why is primary source analysis an important skill to teach in the history classroom? How will you explain the relevance of this skill to students? Discuss in small groups For January Meeting Finish reading Chapter 1 on Wineburg In January, teachers will implement: primary vs. secondary source activity and 4 C’s or 6 C’s of Primary Source Analysis with one primary source.