HPRC & ACSM’s High Intensity Training Conference and Performance Optimization Workshop Sponsored by the Human Performance Resource Center September 13-14, 2010 Uniformed Services University for the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD Background Literature High Repetition/Short Rest Interval Resistance Training N. Travis Triplett, PhD, FNSCA Jeffrey M. McBride, PhD, FNSCA Resistance Training • utilized with different set, repetition, and load combinations to optimize specific training goals • types of goals: – Muscular Endurance (least common in athletic populations) – Hypertrophy – Strength – Power Resistance Training Types • Circuit Training – exercises in rapid succession, performed for 30-60 sec (often single joint movements) – short rest periods (30-60 seconds) – high number of repetitions – lower loading (40-60% of 1RM) [low intensity] – enhance muscular endurance (aerobic/anaerobic) Resistance Training Types • Strength Training – exercises utilizing 3-6 sets – longer rest periods (2-5 minutes) – lower number of repetitions – higher loading (70-90% of 1RM) [high intensity] – typically larger muscle mass structural lifts (squat, deadlift, bench press, etc) Resistance Training Types • Power Training – exercises utilizing 3-6 sets – longer rest periods (2-5 minutes) – only 5-7 repetitions (to avoid drop-off in power output) – lighter loading (0-50% of 1RM except for weightlifting lifts 70-80%) – other exercises include jump squats, bench press throws, etc. CrossFit™ • a popular method of training among tactical professionals • attempts to address multiple components of physical fitness in one program, without specializing in any one area CrossFit™ • series of exercises performed in rapid succession – in a timed fashion – typically for higher numbers of repetitions and shorter rest periods • falls under the basic definition of circuit training • specific research is lacking Circuit Training Research – acute increases in lactate levels, EPOC & heart rate (Baudry & Roux 2009; Braund et al. 2005; Garbutt et al. 1994) – used in some cardiac rehab programs (Kelemen et al. 1986) – added to aerobic training to enhance muscular strength Gettman et al. 1978) Circuit Training Research – less increase in muscle strength in comparison to standard strength training (Hortobagyi et al. 1991; Kraemer et al. 2000; Marx et al. 2001) – high repetition training shows lower muscle strength gain than lower repetition training (Campos et al. 2002) Circuit Training Research – involving both aerobic and anaerobic component may attenuate muscle strength gain (Hortobagyi et al. 1991) CrossFit™ Research – one study which utilized military personnel of varying fitness levels and experience with CrossFit™ – results included some increases in power (20%) as calculated and strength (13%) [tests more specific to the training] – results also included modest or no overall improvements in Army standard fitness tests Injury Concerns • limited data • small number of weight room injuries compared to sports injuries overall – 56,000 emergency room visits for weight training injuries compared to 6 million total ER visits for sports injuries Injury Concerns • Causes included: – Unsafe behavior – Equipment malfunction – Lack of supervision – Inattention • Weightlifting injuries (Olympic lifts) have a much lower injury rate than other popular sports (2-25x less) Terminology Concerns • Intensity: weight lifted (%1RM), NOT perception of working hard (which is often higher in ‘metabolic’ workouts) • related to volume-load, which is calculated by multiplying the weight by the total number of repetitions at that weight Terminology (cont’d) • Example calculation of volumeload comparison for one exercise – 100 kg 1RM – 3 sets of 12 at 40% of 1RM = 1440 kg – 5 sets of 5 at 80% of 1RM = 2000 kg • Thus, by %1RM and volume-load definitions, intensity is highest in heavy-load exercises Training Recommendations increase muscle strength (anaerobic) component through standard strength training protocol (high loading – high intensity ≥ 80% of 1RM) increase VO2max (aerobic) component through aerobic training protocol (running, biking, etc.) increase muscle power component through use of power exercise protocol (weightlifting movements, plyometrics, etc.) Periodization Example •Variation in Volume-Load (kg) •Variation in Intensity (% 1RM) •Variation in Focus of Training (Strength, Power, Speed, Endurance) Final Thoughts • Questions to be answered: – What are the most important physical performance needs of the soldier? – What is the purpose of utilizing resistance training to meet these needs? – Which needs are met with military training and which needs should be met in the weight room?