PPT - Human Performance Resource Center

High Intensity Training Conference and
Performance Optimization Workshop
Sponsored by the
Human Performance Resource Center
September 13-14, 2010
Uniformed Services University for the Health Sciences,
Bethesda, MD
Background Literature
High Repetition/Short Rest Interval
Resistance Training
N. Travis Triplett, PhD, FNSCA
Jeffrey M. McBride, PhD, FNSCA
Resistance Training
• utilized with different set, repetition, and
load combinations to optimize specific
training goals
• types of goals:
– Muscular Endurance (least common in
athletic populations)
– Hypertrophy
– Strength
– Power
Resistance Training Types
• Circuit Training
– exercises in rapid succession, performed
for 30-60 sec (often single joint movements)
– short rest periods (30-60 seconds)
– high number of repetitions
– lower loading (40-60% of 1RM) [low
– enhance muscular endurance
Resistance Training Types
• Strength Training
– exercises utilizing 3-6 sets
– longer rest periods (2-5 minutes)
– lower number of repetitions
– higher loading (70-90% of 1RM) [high
– typically larger muscle mass structural
lifts (squat, deadlift, bench press, etc)
Resistance Training Types
• Power Training
– exercises utilizing 3-6 sets
– longer rest periods (2-5 minutes)
– only 5-7 repetitions (to avoid drop-off
in power output)
– lighter loading (0-50% of 1RM except
for weightlifting lifts 70-80%)
– other exercises include jump squats,
bench press throws, etc.
• a popular method of training
among tactical professionals
• attempts to address multiple
components of physical fitness in
one program, without specializing
in any one area
• series of exercises performed in
rapid succession
– in a timed fashion
– typically for higher numbers of
repetitions and shorter rest periods
• falls under the basic definition of
circuit training
• specific research is lacking
Circuit Training Research
– acute increases in lactate levels, EPOC &
heart rate (Baudry & Roux 2009; Braund
et al. 2005; Garbutt et al. 1994)
– used in some cardiac rehab programs
(Kelemen et al. 1986)
– added to aerobic training to enhance
muscular strength Gettman et al. 1978)
Circuit Training Research
– less increase in muscle strength in
comparison to standard strength training
(Hortobagyi et al. 1991; Kraemer et al.
2000; Marx et al. 2001)
– high repetition training shows lower
muscle strength gain than lower repetition
training (Campos et al. 2002)
Circuit Training Research
– involving both aerobic and
anaerobic component may
attenuate muscle strength gain
(Hortobagyi et al. 1991)
CrossFit™ Research
– one study which utilized military
personnel of varying fitness levels and
experience with CrossFit™
– results included some increases in power
(20%) as calculated and strength (13%)
[tests more specific to the training]
– results also included modest or no overall
improvements in Army standard fitness
Injury Concerns
• limited data
• small number of weight room
injuries compared to sports
injuries overall
– 56,000 emergency room visits for
weight training injuries compared to
6 million total ER visits for sports
Injury Concerns
• Causes included:
– Unsafe behavior
– Equipment malfunction
– Lack of supervision
– Inattention
• Weightlifting injuries (Olympic lifts)
have a much lower injury rate than
other popular sports (2-25x less)
Terminology Concerns
• Intensity: weight lifted (%1RM),
NOT perception of working hard
(which is often higher in
‘metabolic’ workouts)
• related to volume-load, which is
calculated by multiplying the
weight by the total number of
repetitions at that weight
Terminology (cont’d)
• Example calculation of volumeload comparison for one exercise
– 100 kg 1RM
– 3 sets of 12 at 40% of 1RM = 1440 kg
– 5 sets of 5 at 80% of 1RM = 2000 kg
• Thus, by %1RM and volume-load
definitions, intensity is highest in
heavy-load exercises
Training Recommendations
 increase muscle strength (anaerobic)
component through standard strength training
protocol (high loading – high intensity ≥ 80% of
 increase VO2max (aerobic) component through
aerobic training protocol (running, biking, etc.)
 increase muscle power component through use
of power exercise protocol (weightlifting
movements, plyometrics, etc.)
Periodization Example
•Variation in Volume-Load (kg)
•Variation in Intensity (% 1RM)
•Variation in Focus of Training
(Strength, Power, Speed,
Final Thoughts
• Questions to be answered:
– What are the most important physical
performance needs of the soldier?
– What is the purpose of utilizing
resistance training to meet these
– Which needs are met with military
training and which needs should be met
in the weight room?