Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 13e

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Robbins & Judge
Organizational Behavior
14th Edition
Motivation: From Concepts to
Applications
Kelli J. Schutte
William Jewell College
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-0
Topics we will cover
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Chapter 8
The job characteristics model
How can jobs be re-dessigned?
Examples of employee involvement program
What to pay: establishing a pay structure
How to pay: rewarding
– Variable pay, piece-rate pay, merit based, bonuses, sill-based, profit
sharing plans, gain sharing, employee stock ownership plans
 Flexible benefits
 Intrinsic rewards: employee recognition programs
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-1
The Job Characteristics Model
 Five Core Job Dimensions
– Skill Variety: degree to which the job incorporates a
number of different skills and talents
– Task Identity: degree to which the job requires the
completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
– Task Significance: how the job impacts the lives of
others
– Autonomy: identifies how much freedom and
independence the worker has over the job
– Feedback: how much the job generates direct and
clear information about the worker’s performance
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-2
The Job Characteristics Model
Core job
dimensions
Critical
psychological
states
Skill Variety
Task identity
Task significance
Experienced
meaningfulness
of the work
Autonomy
Responsibility for
outcomes
Feedback
Knowledge of
actual results
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EMPLOYEE GROWTH
Personal
and work
outcomes
High work
motivation
High quality
performance
& satisfaction
Low turnover
8-3
How Can Jobs be Redesigned?
Job Rotation
• The shifting of an employee from one task
to another with similar skill requirements.
• Flexibility + avoids layoffs
Job Enrichment
• The expansion of a job by increasing the
degree to which the worker controls the
planning, execution, and evaluation of the
work.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-4
Strengths of Job Rotation
Helps
managers in
scheduling
Reduces
boredom
Increased
skills
Increases
understanding
of work
contribution
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-5
Job Enrichment – Possible Actions
Combine Tasks
Form Natural Work Units
Establish Client Relations
Expand Jobs Vertically
Open Feedback Channels
E X H I B I T 8-2
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-6
Employee Involvement
 Definition: A participative process that uses
employees’ input to increase their commitment to
the organization’s success.
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs
• Participative Management
• Joint decision making, helps with poor morale and low
productivity, mixed results
• Representative Participation
• Goal is to re-distribute power, work councils or board
representatives
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-7
Using Rewards to Motivate Employees
 Although pay is not the primary factor driving job
satisfaction, it is a motivator.
1. Establish a pay structure
2. Variable-pay programs
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-8
1. Establishing a Pay Structure
Internal Pay
Equity
-Job
evaluation
External Pay
Equity
- External
competitiveness
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-9
2. How to Pay
Variable-Pay Programs
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Piece-Rate Pay
Merit-Based Pay
Bonuses
Skill-Based Pay
Profit-Sharing Plans
Gainsharing
Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-10
Types of Variable-Pay Programs
 Piece-Rate Pay
– Pays a fixed sum of money for each unit of production
completed. For example: Ballpark workers selling peanuts
and soda get $1 for each bag of peanuts and soda sold.
 Merit-Based Pay
– Pays for individual performance based on performance
appraisal results. If appraisals are designed correctly,
workers performing at a high level will get more pay.
 Bonuses
– Pay a lump sum at the end of a designated period of time
based on individual and/or organizational performance.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8-11
More Types of Variable-Pay Programs
 Skill-Based Pay
– Pays based on the number of skills employees have or the
number of jobs they can do.
 Profit-Sharing Plans
– Pays out a portion of the organization’s profitability. It is an
organization-wide program and is based on a predetermined
formula.
 Gainsharing
– Pays for improvements in group productivity from one
period to another. It is a group incentive plan.
 Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOP)
– Provides each employee with the opportunity to acquire
stock as part of their benefit package.
–
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
.
8-12
Flexible Benefits
 A benefits plan that allows each employee to put
together a benefits package individually tailored to his
or her own needs and situation
– Its not a “one size fits all”
– Flexible: age, marital status, number/age of dependents, etc
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
.
8-13
Employee Recognition Programs
 Employee rewards need to be intrinsic and extrinsic.
Employee recognition programs are a good method of
intrinsic rewards.
– The rewards can range from a simple thank-you to more
widely publicized formal programs.
– Financial incentives are more motivating: in the short term
– Advantages: they are inexpensive and effective.
– Some critics say:
• they can be politically motivated and if they are perceived to
be applied unfairly
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
.
8-14
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