Acculturation.assimilation.ethnicity - edms411-2

Immigration issues
What happens when you leave
your home and country?
 "Cultural assimilation is the adoption by an individual of
some or all aspects of a dominant culture."
 “Acculturation is the exchange of cultural features. The
original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be
altered, but the groups remain distinct."
 Acculturation : the process of
 Assimilation is used to describe the
process whereby large numbers of
migrants from Europe were
absorbed into the American
population during the 19th and the
early part of the 20th century.
 Assimilation of groups as well as
individuals can take place.
 Assimilation is often incomplete
and creates adjustment problems
for individuals.
 Assimilation does not proceed
equally rapidly and equally
effectively in all inter-group
contacts between different cultures
and also the customs of such
 Acculturation may involve either
direct social interaction or
exposure to other cultures by
means of the mass media of
 Acculturation refers to the
assimilation by one group of the
culture of another group which
modifies the existing culture and so
changes group identity.
 If there are tensions between old
and new cultures the subjects end
up adapting the new as well as the
The Variable Stages of Ethnicity
Stage 1: Ethnic Psychological Captivity
 Feelings of rejection and low self-esteem
 Avoids contact with dominant group.
 Internalization of the image the dominant society has
ascribed to him and may feel shame.
Stage 2: Ethnic Encapsulation
 Reaction to St. 1 with bitterness and desire of revenge.
 Turn inward to his ethnic group and reject all other groups,
especially the dominant one that can be regarded as the
“enemy”. Racism, genocidal tendencies.
Stage 3: Ethnic Identity Clarification
 Clarify self in relation to his ethnic group.
 Self-acceptance and understanding.
 See both positive and negative aspects.
 Needs: economic and emotional security.
 Must have had positive, productive experiences with other
Stage 4: Bi-ethnicity
 Functions successfully in two cultural groups.
 The dominant group members do not need to do this.
Stage 5: Multi-ethnicity and Reflective
 Functions successfully in several cultural groups.
 Still feels loyal to the primary ethnic group PLUS
commitment to the host nation and its values.
Stage 6: Globalism and Global Competency
 Developed global identification.
 Has necessary skills to relate to all groups.
 Achieved an ideal but delicate balance of primary group,
nation state, global commitments, identifications and
(Banks 1992, Multiethnic Education: Theory and practice, Boston Allyn and Bacon).
Cultural views of U.S. – Born vs. Foreignborn English Language Learners
 Foreign born students
 U.S.-born students
generally have a more
realistic view of the United
States.These students do
not have idealistic
expectations, but they may
have difficulty identifying
with and aspiring to
generally have an idealized
view of the United States.
Media images of the U.S.
prior to arrival and the
materialism they see after
arrival creates an
unrealistic view of
Cultural views of U.S. – Born vs. Foreignborn English Language Learners
 Unless they have had an
 U.S.-born students
generally are more aware
of U.S. history, customs,
and traditions. By living in
the U.S. and attending
school from early grades,
U.S. born students have a
greater awareness of U.S.
history, customs and
opportunity to study U.S.
history and culture before
arriving, most Foreign
born students are not
aware of its history,
customs and traditions. As
a result, they will need
instruction and/or
Cultural views of U.S. – Born vs. Foreignborn English Language Learners
 In general, Foreign born
 U.S.-born students often
perceive their own cultural
differences as negative.
 The values and assumptions
of U.S. culture may appear
to be unattainable because
of the indifference or
hostility these students
students experience their
own differences as positive.
Despite initial culture
shock, they accept U.S.
values and appreciate the
similarities and differences
between their own and
U.S. culture.
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