Immigration issues What happens when you leave your home and country? Acculturation "Cultural assimilation is the adoption by an individual of some or all aspects of a dominant culture." “Acculturation is the exchange of cultural features. The original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct." Acculturation : the process of Assimilation is used to describe the process whereby large numbers of migrants from Europe were absorbed into the American population during the 19th and the early part of the 20th century. Assimilation of groups as well as individuals can take place. Assimilation is often incomplete and creates adjustment problems for individuals. Assimilation does not proceed equally rapidly and equally effectively in all inter-group situations. contacts between different cultures and also the customs of such contacts. Acculturation may involve either direct social interaction or exposure to other cultures by means of the mass media of communication. Acculturation refers to the assimilation by one group of the culture of another group which modifies the existing culture and so changes group identity. If there are tensions between old and new cultures the subjects end up adapting the new as well as the old. The Variable Stages of Ethnicity Stage 1: Ethnic Psychological Captivity Feelings of rejection and low self-esteem Avoids contact with dominant group. Internalization of the image the dominant society has ascribed to him and may feel shame. Stage 2: Ethnic Encapsulation Reaction to St. 1 with bitterness and desire of revenge. Turn inward to his ethnic group and reject all other groups, especially the dominant one that can be regarded as the “enemy”. Racism, genocidal tendencies. Stage 3: Ethnic Identity Clarification Clarify self in relation to his ethnic group. Self-acceptance and understanding. See both positive and negative aspects. Needs: economic and emotional security. Must have had positive, productive experiences with other groups. Stage 4: Bi-ethnicity Functions successfully in two cultural groups. The dominant group members do not need to do this. Stage 5: Multi-ethnicity and Reflective Nationalism Functions successfully in several cultural groups. Still feels loyal to the primary ethnic group PLUS commitment to the host nation and its values. Stage 6: Globalism and Global Competency Developed global identification. Has necessary skills to relate to all groups. Achieved an ideal but delicate balance of primary group, nation state, global commitments, identifications and loyalties. (Banks 1992, Multiethnic Education: Theory and practice, Boston Allyn and Bacon). Cultural views of U.S. – Born vs. Foreignborn English Language Learners Foreign born students U.S.-born students generally have a more realistic view of the United States.These students do not have idealistic expectations, but they may have difficulty identifying with and aspiring to opportunities. generally have an idealized view of the United States. Media images of the U.S. prior to arrival and the materialism they see after arrival creates an unrealistic view of America. Cultural views of U.S. – Born vs. Foreignborn English Language Learners Unless they have had an U.S.-born students generally are more aware of U.S. history, customs, and traditions. By living in the U.S. and attending school from early grades, U.S. born students have a greater awareness of U.S. history, customs and traditions. opportunity to study U.S. history and culture before arriving, most Foreign born students are not aware of its history, customs and traditions. As a result, they will need instruction and/or clarification. Cultural views of U.S. – Born vs. Foreignborn English Language Learners In general, Foreign born U.S.-born students often perceive their own cultural differences as negative. The values and assumptions of U.S. culture may appear to be unattainable because of the indifference or hostility these students experience. students experience their own differences as positive. Despite initial culture shock, they accept U.S. values and appreciate the similarities and differences between their own and U.S. culture.