THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE In the 1200s and 1300s, most cities in Europe were in Italy. By the 1500s large cities had also sprouted in northern Europe. Soon, ideas of the Renaissance reached the growing cities of London, Paris, Amsterdam, and others. As cities grew, a vast trading network was A BOOK REVOLUTION Renaissance ideas were also spread by Italian artists who fled to northern Europe to escape violent clashes between the armies of northern monarchs and wealthy Italian cities. Mid 1400s– the German Johannes Gutenburg cast the letters of the alphabet onto metal plates and locked those plates into a wooden press. This moveable type– which had its roots in China and Korea– With this…text could be quickly printed on both sides of a sheet of paper. Moveable type made producing books and other printed material faster and cheaper, which made them more available to all types of people. First publication was the 1282 page BIBLE. -- within 35 years, a Gutenburg press appeared as far away as Constantinople. PHILOSOPHERS/WRITERS Printed books provided more rapid access to new ideas. With easier access to books, more people learned to read and more books were printed. DESIDERIUS ERASMUS- Leading Christian Humanist. Working as a priest in what is now the Netherlands, Erasmus wrote extensively about the need for a pure and simple Christian life, stripped of the rituals and politics of the church on earth. SIR THOMAS MORE Humanism was introduced to England by living there and by English people who had studied in Italy. SIR THOMAS MORE- fellow humanist and English statesman Wrote a novel called UTOPIA was meant for a humanist audience, and it was widely read across Europe. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Many scholars believe the greatest writer was English playwright WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. Drew inspiration from ancient and contemporary works of literature. Had a wide knowledge of natural science and humanist topics, and a deep understanding of human nature, were expressed in his plays. Use of language and choice of themes, made plays appeal even to uneducated people. Shakespeare Through his plays, Renaissance ideas spread to mass audiences. Shakespeare focused on the lives of realistic characters. Shakespeare’s plays were a popular past time for people from every class. Christine de Pisan Italian-born writer Wrote important works focusing on the role women played in society. In her book, The City of Women, she discusses different views of women and their roles in society. She was one of the few to champion equality and education for women. ARTISTS ALBRECHT DURER (DOOR-UHR) -German artist -Used Italian Techniques of realism and perspective in his own works -Painted in oils, a medium that characterized the art of northern Europe. -Oil paints reproduced the texture of fabric, wood, and other tiny details. ARTISTS - JAN VAN EYCK Flemish(Beligium) painter - Focused on landscapes and domestic life HANS HOLBEIN - Used objects as symbols to characterize the subjects in his portraits. PIETER BRUEGHEL - Flemish artist. Paintings showed scenes from everyday peasant life.