Metacognition powerpoint

Seana DeCrosta
Jennifer McCallum
EDUS 515
Dr. P. Duncan
 Definition
 Comte’s Paradox
 Metacognitive knowledge
 Metacognitive skills
 Metacognition in the classroom
 Cognitive Strategy Instruction
 Research
 Metacognitive Strategies
Lecture Wrapper
 Listening tips (Cortright, 2012)
 On a sheet of paper, list what you think the three most
important points of this lecture.
 At the end of the lesson, you will hand this in.
What is Metacognition?
• Thinking about thinking
• Knowing about knowing.
Definitions of Metacognition
“… refers to higher order thinking which involves
active control over the cognitive processes
engaged in learning” (Livingston, 1997).
“..refers to the ways that people think - the patterns,
how we put together the information that we're
given.” (McDarby, 1988)
“Metacognition is a systematic strategy for solving
problems that includes reflecting on and evaluating
the productivity of one’s thinking.” (CardelleElawar, 1990).
John H. Flavell
 Coined the term “Metacognition” (1979).
 His Definition: “the knowledge about and regulation of
one’s cognitive activities in learning processes.”
(Flavell, 1979; Brown, 1978)
Ponder this:
 Most conceptualizations of metacognition have in common
that they take the perspective of higher-order cognition
about cognition.’’
 There is a higher-order agent overlooking and governing the
cognitive system, while simultaneously being part of it.
( (2006) 1: 3–14) Veenman, etal. Metacognition Learning
Comte’s paradox:
One cannot split one’s self in two, of whom one thinks
whilst the other observes him thinking.
(Veenman, etal. Metacognition Learning (2006) 1: 3–
Flavell (1979, 1987)
metacognition consists of :
metacognitive knowledge1
metacognitive skills2
1.Metacognition: An Overview, Jennifer A. Livingston
Metacognitive knowledge
refers to acquired knowledge about cognitive
processes, knowledge that can be used to control
cognitive processes.
The former refers to a person’s declarative knowledge
about the interactions between person, task, and
strategy characteristics (Flavell, 1979)
Metacognitive knowledge
 “…can be correct or incorrect, and this self-knowledge
may be quite resistant to change.
For instance, a student may incorrectly think that (s)he
invested enough time in preparation for math exams,
despite repeated failure (But the teacher made the
exams so hard to pass...’’). Such misattributions
prevent students from amending their self-knowledge”.
(Marcel, et al)
Metacognitive knowledge
Flavell further divides into three categories:
knowledge of person variables
 task variables and
 strategy variables.
(Metacognition: An Overview, Jennifer A. Livingston)
Metacognitive knowledge
 knowledge of person variables
“General knowledge about how human beings learn and process information, as well as individual
knowledge of one's own learning processes”
ex. Being aware of where “you” should study for “you” learn
most effectively.
(Metacognition: An Overview, Jennifer A. Livingston)
Metacognitive knowledge
 task variables
“knowledge about the nature of the task as well as the type of processing demands that it will place upon the individual”
Ex. “you may be aware that it will take more time for you to read and comprehend a science text than it would for you
to read and comprehend a novel”.
(Metacognition: An Overview, Jennifer A. Livingston)
Metacognitive knowledge
strategy variables
“knowledge about both cognitive and metacognitive strategies, as well as conditional knowledge about when and where it is
appropriate to use such strategies”.
Ex. Basically knowing what needs to be done, how “you” might go about doing it, and appropriately applying the right strategy. (Do you agree????)
An Overview, Jennifer A. Livingston)
Metacognitive Skills
“…a person’s declarative knowledge about the
interactions between person, task, and strategy
 “…have a feedback mechanism built-in. Either you are
capable of planning your actions ahead and task performance
progresses smoothly, or you don’t and your actions go
(Marcel Et al)
What is metacognition in the
 Actively regulating one’s own thinking and
acquisition/comprehension of new knowledge
 Learning strategies
 Study strategies
 Metacognition is a series of learned behaviors that can
be (and need to be) taught.
 These behaviors are often interpreted as intelligence.
Students must:
 Recognize the task’s level of difficulty
 Implement a learning strategy
 underlining, note-taking, summarizing, and selfquestioning
 Self-evaluate and self-regulate
 Am I satisfied with my work and with what I learned?
Cognitive Strategy Instruction
 An instructional approach that prioritizes teaching
thinking skills to help students become self-sufficient
 Believes that certain cognitive strategies are superior to
others in helping students remember and retain
 Exemplified by best and brightest
Cognitive Strategy Instruction
 Teach students metacognitive strategies and how to monitor their
 Teach students when to use each strategy
 Practice is essential!
 Can giftedness be taught
 Norbert Jausovec, 2004
 Conclusion: Teaching metacognitive strategies (when and how
to use them) improves problem-solving performance.
 Effects of metacognitive feedback on mathematical problem
 Maria Cardelle-Elawar, 1990
 Bilingual, low-performing Hispanic students
 Conclusion: Teachers providing metacognitive feedback on
students’ tests helps them to think through their error and selfcorrect in the future.
Metacognitive Activities
 Simple Processes
 underlining, outlining, note taking, summarizing, selfquestioning
 More elaborate
 hierarchical summaries, conceptual maps, thematic
organizers, and metaphorical thinking
 SQ3R
 Wrap around
 Think-aloud
Lecture Wrapper
 Please review your list and choose three things that
you thought were the most important.
 The three most important things:
Metacognitive knowledge is “thinking about thinking.” It is
also one’s ability to self-regulate and monitor their
Metacognition must be taught and practiced.
 After three lecture wrappers, student responses
increasingly matched the instructor's: 45% the first time,
68% the second time, and 75% the third
(Lovett, 2008)
What do you see?
(Linda, 2011)
What do you see?
(Linda, 2011)
How many faces do you see?
(Linda, 2011)
 Definition
 Comte’s Paradox
 Metacognitive knowledge
 Metacognitive skills
 Metacognition in the classroom
 Cognitive Strategy Instruction
 Research
 Metacognitive Strategies
Thank you!
Works Cited
Cardelle-Elawar, M. M. (1990). Effects of feedback tailored to bilingual students' mathematics needs
on verbal problem solving. Elementary School Journal, 91(2), 165.
Cortright, S. M. (2012). Retrieved from
Jausovec, N. (1994). Can giftedness be taught?. Roeper Review, 16(3), 210.
Linda, B. (2011, August 1). Illusions. Retrieved from
Livingston, J. (1997). University of buffalo. Retrieved from
Lovett, M. (2008). Teaching metacognition. Retrieved from
McDarby, M. (1988). Labratory exercises: Metacognition. Retrieved from Exercises/Metacog.htm
Parker, J. (n.d.). The role of metacognition in the classroom. Retrieved from
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