Ushioda slides

advertisement
Motivation and identity in
language learning:
current perspectives
Ema Ushioda
Centre for Applied Linguistics
University of Warwick
Background
 ‘given motivation, it is inevitable that a human
being will learn a second language, if he is
exposed to the language data’ (Corder 1967:
164)
 Four decades of change since then …
globalisation and global spread of English
 Language motivation theory only recently
catching up with these changes …
What does ‘integrative motivation’
mean now?
 Reflecting ‘a sincere and personal interest in
the people and culture represented by the
other group’ (Gardner & Lambert 1972: 132)
 Strong versus weak forms
 The case of English as global language
(Crystal 2003) and English as basic
educational skill (Graddol 2006) – who is the
target reference group?
 Critical voices: Pavlenko (2002), CoetzeeVan Rooy (2006)
Re-theorising language motivation
 ‘international posture’ (Yashima 2002, 2009)
 Theoretical shift of focus to internal domain of
self and identity
 Dörnyei & Csizér 2002; Dörnyei et al. 2006
 Theory of possible selves (Markus & Nurius
1986)
 L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei 2005,
2009): ideal and ought-to selves
 Motivation and identity (Lamb 2004, 2009)
Motivation and identity:
language learners as people
 Motivation theory has tended to focus on
models and learners as abstractions
 Limitations of linear models: Sean’s story …
 Current shift in focus to self and identity 
need to address real social identities people
bring to the language classroom
 ‘Understanding second language learners as
people’ (Lantolf & Pavlenko 2001)
 Person-in-context relational view of
motivation (Ushioda 2009)
Person-in-context relational view of
motivation (Ushioda 2009)
A focus on real persons, rather than on learners as
theoretical abstractions; a focus on the agency of the
individual person as a thinking, feeling, human being,
with an identity, a personality, a unique history and
background; a person with goals, motives and
intentions; a focus on the interactions between this
self-reflective agent, and the fluid and complex web
of social relations, activities, experiences and multiple
micro- and macro-contexts in which the person is
embedded, moves and is inherently part of. We need
to take a relational (rather than linear) view of these
multiple contextual elements and see motivation as
an organic process that emerges through the
complex system of interrelations.
Insights from autonomy
theory & practice
 A concern with the learner as a fully rounded
person, with a social identity, situated in a
particular context (Riley 2003:239)
 Encourage Ss to develop and express their own
identities through the language they are learning
 Legenhausen 1999: comparing conversation
practice in traditional communicative vs
autonomous classrooms
German students in traditional communicative
classroom (Legenhausen 1999)
S: How old are you?
A: I’m twelve years old. And you?
S: Eleven.
A: Ehm. Do you live in a house or in a flat?
S: I live in a house in Olfen.
A: I live in a flat in Olfen, too. (..) Ehm, eh.
S: What’s your telephone number?
A: My telephone number is three five seven five, and
what’s your tele / telephone number?
S: My telephone number is ehm three two two two (..)
A: Ah, ah, do you like school?
S: Yes, sometimes.
Danish students in ‘autonomous’ classroom
(Legenhausen 1999)
C: What shall we talk about?
M: I don’t know. What do you think?
C: Ah, we could talk about yesterday.
M: Ok.
C: [What did you?]
M: [What did you?] (laughing)
M: What did you do?
C: Well, I went home from school, and I write (..) some some
music for my music group.
M: Yeah.
C: We shall play here Friday, after school, we have (..)
borrowed a a room with drums and guitars, and so (..)
we’re going to (..) record a tape, with our songs.
M: How many are you in your group?
Speaking as themselves: motivation &
transportable identities
 Richards 2006: analysis of classroom talk
(drawing on Zimmerman 1998)



situated identities (T – S, doctor – patient)
discourse identities (initiator, questioner …)
transportable identities (mother of two, keen
tennis player, avid science fiction fan)
 Motivational impact of invoking Ss’ own
transportable identities in classroom talk
And the motivational consequences of
not orienting to Ss’ own transportable identities
in the language classroom …?


Student: I am feeling bad. My grandfather he die
last week and I am …
Teacher: No – not die – say died because it’s in
the past
(Scrivener 1994:19)
Motivation, transportable identities &
future possible selves
 Future possible selves (ideal & ought-to
selves) can have strong psychological reality
in the current imaginative experiences of
learners (Dörnyei 2009)
 Engaging Ss’ transportable identities and
‘selves’ through L2 use now  may help
them imagine future possible selves as L2
users
Download
Related flashcards

Political systems

21 cards

Political philosophy

38 cards

Political concepts

13 cards

Military science

24 cards

Create Flashcards