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EFFECT OF ADVANCE ORGANIZER MODEL ON ACHIEVEMENT OF IX STANDARD STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS By M.RAJENDRA NATH BABU Senior Research Fellow(UGC) DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION S.V. UNIVERSITY Tirupati.09440858111 INTRODUCTION Education has been considered in all times to be an instrument of social change. This objective cannot be achieved without having improved the class room practices. Teaching is an activity, designed and performed for the attainment of a larger number of objectives in terms of changes in pupil’s behavior. The Indian Education Commission (1964-66) stated that there is an urgent need to raise the quality of science teaching to promote the deepening of understanding of basic principles, to develop problemsolving and analytical skills and to promote the spirit of equality, experimentation and accurate observation. Models of teaching enhance the ability of students to achieve various learning objectives. Thus, in a very real sense, increasing aptitude to learn is one of the fundamental purposes of these models. The current education reform, people tend to accept the machine learning is equivalent to learning, discovery learning and meaningful learning to a uniform, negative reception learning, that teachers must use the language system knowledge to enable students to teach in a passive position, the flow in the “spoon-fed “education and advocate the use of discovery learning place to learn to accept. Advance Organizer, according to Woolfolk (2001), is “a statement of inclusive concepts to introduce and sum up material that follows". Ausubel (1960) defined advance organizer as “a cognitive instructional strategy used to promote the learning and retention of new information”; Anderson (2004) defined it as “a method of bridging and linking old information with something new”. An advance organizer is information that is presented prior to learning that can be used by the learner to organize and interpret new incoming information (Mayer, 2003). Advance organizer as a concept was developed and systematically studied by David Ausubel who was greatly influenced by the teachings of Jean Piaget (Geier, 1999). Advance organizers are helpful in the way that they help the process of learning when difficult and complex materials are introduce. This is satisfied through two conditions. The student must process and understand what the information present on the organizer; this increases the effectiveness of organizer itself. The organizer must indicate the relation among the basic concepts and terms that will be used. Classification of Models of Teaching, Joyce and Weil(1985) 1. the social family 2. the information processing family structure. 3. the personal family 4. the behavioral systems family 1.Inductive thinking model, 2. inquiry thinking model Information processing family 3. Biological science inquiry model structure. 4. Concept attainment model 5.Advance Organizer Model 6.Cognitive development model, 7. Memory training model Phase-I:Presentation of A.O. Steps in AOM Phase-II: presentation of learning task or material Phase-III: strengthening cognitive organization REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE: Clawson and Barnes (1973) attempted to determine the effects of different types of advance organizers. Their work showed that advance organizers with pictorial, graphic, and manipulated materials were more effective than verbal and expository advance organizers. Khale and Nordland (1975) investigated the differential effect of an advance organizer on the meaningful learning of information presented to the learner in a structured programme of individualized instruction. The results of their study indicated that advance organizers did not function to increase meaningful learning. Lucas and Fowler (1975) examined the effects of three types of advance organizers on learning. The experimental groups were exposed to audio, video and written advance organizers while the control group was exposed to a history passage. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups on any of the factors. Watkins (1983) examined the effects of using different modes of advance organizer on the performance in music by some non-music majors. The results showed that both the advance organizer and the modes of it did not show any significant effect on the performance of the students. But the advance organizer models when compared with the advance organizer alone revealed improved performance for each of the treatment interventions. Khan and Siddique (1991) investigated the effects of adjunct post-questions and expository advance organizers on problem-solving from prose text. The sample consisted of 88 introductory psychology students. A post-test only control group was utilized. The findings showed that there were no significant performance differences between having and not having advance organizers, and there were no significant interaction effects. Adebola S.Ifamuyiwa(2011) examined that the students exposed to the experimental intervention significantly achieved better than those in the control class at their comprehension level of cognition. This finding has again revealed the efficacy of the use of advance organizer in enhancing students’ achievement in mathematics. Narendra Girdhar Pachpande(2012) studied that there is significant difference in the mean scores of students which are taught by traditional teaching method and advanced organizer model and that the mean score of students taught by advanced organizer model is greater than the mean score of student which are taught by traditional teaching method. Silas A. Ihedioha (2012) studied that the transmitter of knowledge model is found to be as effective as the conventional teaching method for teaching circle geometry and trigonometry. Jeffery Montgomery (2013) studied that there is no significant difference between the effects of availability of mathematics textbooks, mathematics laboratory; and availability teaching/learning resources on students’ academic performance in mathematics. TITLE OF THE PROBLEM “The title of the present study is, “EFFECT OF ADVANCE ORGANIZER MODEL ON ACHIEVEMENT OF IX STANDARD STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS”. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY According to David P.Ausubel there is a parallel between the subject matter organized and the way in which the learners organize the knowledge in their mind especially cognitive structure. Every discipline has a structure of concepts that is organized hierarchically such as → Simple to difficult → Concrete to abstract → Known to unknown Organizing concepts provide a conceptual structure on which the course is built. There is a need to study AOM because It strengthens student’s cognitive structure structure. Facilitates their acquisition and retention of information Through AOM student may learn on his own. It avoids fall back to learning by rote. promotes active processing of information meaningfully. Models of teaching are very important in enhancing the achievement of students in different subjects. There are many models of teaching to improve instructional effectiveness. Now a days the teachers are following conventional method in teaching Mathematics. The researcher possessing Master degree in Mathematics was interested in studying the effectiveness of models of teaching Mathematics. Keeping these views there is need to implement Advance Organizer model in improving academic achievement in Mathematics. So the researcher selected Advance Organizer model to improve academic achievement in Mathematics of secondary school students. Since many studies have been made on AOM, no one has conducted a study on effectiveness of Advance Organizer Model on the academic achievement in Mathematics separately. Therefore the researcher was interested to know to what an extent the AOM influence on the achievement of students in Mathematics studying in Proddatur Town. Hence present study was taken up. Objectives of the study 1. To develop an Advance organizer models on the units “Real Numbers, Polynomials and Factorisation, Lines and Angles, Surface areas and volumes” in Mathematics for IX Standard Students. 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of Advance Organizer Model over Conventional method of teaching in Mathematics for IX standard English medium students. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY There is no significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of experimental group. There is no significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of control group. There is no significant difference between Advance organizer group and Conventional group students in their Post test scores. Variables of the Study Independent Variable: Instruction through Advance Organizer Model. Teaching through Conventional method. Dependent Variables: Dependent Variable: Achievement in Mathematics. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED IN THE STUDY: 1. Effect: Producing the result that is wanted or intended. Producing a successful result. It mainly refers to find out how much effective is one technique/method over the other technique/method. The criterion used for finding out the effectiveness is the performance on the achievement test prepared by the investigator on which the Advance organizer model is prepared. 2. Achievement: “Accomplishment or proficiency of performance in a given skill or a body of knowledge”. Knowledge obtained from mathematics teaching is an achievement. 3. Achievement test: An achievement test is a test of developed skill or knowledge. Tests designed to measure the effects of specific teaching or learning in any area of the curriculum defined by Anastasi as “measuring the effects of relative standardized sets of experiences as opposed to aptitude tests which measure learning under relatively uncontrolled experience”. 4. Advance Organizer: An educational technological term for short introductory texts presented to a student at the beginning of course to enable him/her to structure the course material and put in perspective. 5. Advance organizer model: The model in which advanced organizer is presented with explanation, integrative reconciliation and critical study and in which also idea is cleared is an advanced organizer model. An advance organizer is information that is presented prior to learning that can be used by the learner to organize and interpret new incoming information (Mayer, 2003). 6. Conventional Method: Conventional method of teaching means communicating information through lectures to students, consisting of explanation interspersed with teacher’s questions and student’s answer. The method by which teacher teaches in class room is traditional teaching method. A teacher centered traditional method of teaching with a due weightage to talk and chalk. It is generally known as Herbartian method. 7. Conventional group: A group of subjects to whom the treatment of general method of teaching learning classroom environment is employed. 8. Experimental group: A representative sample of particular population to whom the researcher applies various tools and techniques to derive the desired goals and objects. 9. Mathematics: “mathematics is the indispensable instrument of all physical researches” according to Kant. NPE (1986) stated “mathematics should be visualized by the vehicle to train a child to think, reason, analyze and to articulate logically”. Methodology Pre-test post-test equivalent group experimental design was employed in the present study Random Matching assignment of of groups groups Pre-test Treatment the Experimental Intelligence Achievement AOM Group Test test in based Achievement teaching Mathematics method Control Group Post-test Intelligence Achievement Traditional Test test in (Conventional) Mathematics teaching method test in Mathematics Achievement test in Mathematics Sample In the present study, the researcher adopted the Purposive Stratified random sampling technique. The sample constitutes the 120 students studying in IX standard from four schools of Proddatur Town. Selection of the sample was as below. 58 High Schools Proddatur(18+40) Four Schools from Proddatur Town Two government and Two private(240) Control group N=60 Experimental Group N=60 PARALLEL GROUPS Sampling Purposive Stratified Random sampling technique Experimental Group Control Group IX Standard Students N=60 IX Standard Students N=60 CONSTRUCTION AND ADOPTION OF TOOLS 1. Raven’s standard Progressive Matrices (RPM) To measure the intelligence of the students, the Standard Progressive Matrices prepared and standardized by Raven, J.C. (1950) was adopted. 2. Preparation of conventional method lesson plans To meet the requirements the investigator prepared 30 lesson plans from the IX standard mathematics textbook, duly following the conventional method of writing lesson plans. CONSTRUCTION AND ADOPTION OF TOOLS 3. Preparation of Advance Organizer Model lesson plans As the nature of Advance Organizer Model differs a lot from conventional teaching the formats of the lesson plan also differ significantly. These Advance Organizer Model based 30 lesson plans prepared by the investigator. 4. Achievement test in mathematics The achievement test was developed and standardized by the investigator using standard scientific procedure Collection of Data: PRE-TESTING EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT IMMEDIATE POST-TESTING The process of data collection ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED Hypothesis- 1: There is no significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of experimental group. To test this hypothesis, the technique t- test was employed and the results are shown in table-1. Table-1: Means and Standard deviations of Pre-test and Post-test scores of Achievement in mathematics of IX standard Students and their t- value. Group Experimental Pre-test N Post-test Mean S.D N t-value Mean S.D 25.504 60 23.350 6.186 60 73.600 13.700 ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED The above table reveals that the obtained‘t’ value of 25.504 is greater than the theoretical‘t’ value of 1.98 at 0.01 level of significance. The obtained‘t’ value is found to be significant. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected, the rejection of null hypothesis made the researcher to formulate alternative hypothesis, i.e., There is a significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of experimental group in mathematics achievement. The mean difference of 73.600 was found to be in favor of the experimental group on post-test. Therefore, the experimental group has shown improvement after subjecting them to the treatment. From this it could be inferred that, the model constructed on the unit ““Real Numbers, Polynomials and Factorisation, Lines and Angles, Surface areas and volumes” in Mathematics seems to be effective in bringing improvement. Therefore it could be concluded that instruction through advance organizer model is significant over conventional method of teaching. ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED Hypothesis- 2: There is no significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of control group. To test this hypothesis, the technique t- test was employed and the results are shown in table-2. Table-2: Means and Standard deviations of Pre-test and Post-test scores of Achievement in mathematics of IX standard Students and their t- value. Group Control Pre-test N Post-test Mean S.D N t-value Mean S.D 20.837 60 25.470 6.326 60 75.300 16.802 ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED From the table, observed that the t- value is 20.837, which is greater than table t- value 1.98 for degree of freedom 118 at 0.01 significant level. Therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. This shows that there is a significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of control group in achievement in mathematics. ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED Hypothesis- 3: There is no significant difference between Advance organizer group and Conventional group students in their Post test scores. To test this hypothesis, the technique t test was employed and the results are shown in table-3. Table-3: Means and Standard deviations of Advance organizer and conventional groups’ scores of Achievement in mathematics of IX standard Students and their t- value. Group N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Advance Organizer 60 88.13 6.539 .844 t-Value 22.262 Conventional 60 60.77 6.922 .894 ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED From the table, observed that the t- value is 22.262, which is greater than table t- value 1.98 for degree of freedom 118 at 0.01 significant level. The mean difference of 88.13 was found to be in favor of the experimental group on post-test. This shows that Advance organizer group shown more score in achievement than conventional group in mathematics. Therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. This shows that there is a significant difference in the mean scores of students which are taught by Conventional Method of Teaching and advanced organizer model. From this we conclude that the mean score of students taught by advanced organizer model is greater than the mean score of student which are taught by Conventional Method of Teaching. Hence we conclude that “There is no significant difference between mean scores of students of Conventional method of teaching and advanced organizer model” was rejected. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY There is a significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of experimental group. There is a significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and post-test of control group. Advance organizer group shown more score in achievement than conventional group in mathematics. There is a significant difference between Advance organizer group and Conventional group students in their Post test scores. This shows that advanced organizer model is more effective than traditional teaching method.