An Introduction to Risk Assessment Trainer: Gerard McCarthy AIfL, ATLS, TechIOSH. Risk Assessment Aim: To identify the factors to be considered in Risk Assessment. Objective: To create a suitable and sufficient Risk Assessment. The Law The Health and Safety At Work Act etc (1974) General Duties of Employers to Employees (Section 2): ‘’It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, the Health, Safety and Welfare of all his employees’’. The Law The Health and Safety At Work Act etc (1974) Duties extend to include: 2.2a Safe plant and systems of work 2.2b Safe handling, storage and transport of articles and substances 2.2c Information, instruction, training and supervision 2.2d Safe access and egress to workplace 2.2e Safe environment and welfare facilities Regulations The Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations (1999) Regulation 3: Risk Assessment Regulation 10: Information for employees Regulation 11: Cooperation and Coordination Regulation 14 Employees duties: I. Work as trained II.Report any short comings Risk Assessment What is a Hazard? A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm What is a Risk? A risk is the chance (or likelihood) of harm being caused Common Hazards Mechanical Machine Hazards Non-Mechanical Machine Hazards •Entanglement •Access (slips, trips and falls) •Trapping •Lifting and Handling •Impact •Electricity •Contact •Fire & Explosion •Ejection •Noise & Vibration Common Controls Mechanical Machine Hazard control: Guards •Interlocking (disables machinery until guard is replaced). •Distance fixed guards (restrict access using a perimeter around machinery). •Automatic Guards (operate as part of machine process) •Self adjusting guards (restrict access when machine is in operation). •Two handed operation (ensures hands are away machine actions). Common Controls Non-Mechanical Machine Hazard control. •Good housekeeping •Planned maintenance •Sensible behaviour •Reporting hazards •Information, instruction, training and supervision Conducting the Risk Assessment The five steps to conducting a risk assessment are: Identify the hazards. Systematically identify all significant hazards that exist from work activities. Evaluate the risks. Identify the likelihood of harm actually occurring and the severity of likely injuries/damage that could occur. Identify the people that could be affected. Implementing control measures. Remove the hazard or control its possible impact. Recording the findings. (5 or more employees) Record all significant findings e.g. it is not necessary to record the possibility that someone may slip on a clean, dry, level floor. Findings of the assessment must be communicated to affected personnel. Monitoring and reviewing the assessment. Risk assessments shall be reviewed annually and when there is a change in circumstances, such as new equipment or implementation of control measures. Evaluating the risk The following combination of severity and likelihood will give an indication of the risk involved for each hazard. (Risk = Severity x Likelihood) Severity (consequences) 1. No injury 2. Minor Injury/minor damage to property 3. Major Injury/ serious damage to Property 4. Fatality. 5. Multiple fatality Likelihood 1. Very Unlikely 2. Unlikely 3. Possible 4. Very Likely 5.Certain 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 2 4 6 8 10 3 3 6 9 12 15 4 4 8 12 16 20 5 5 10 15 20 25 Severity Likelihood A score of five or above requires control measures to reduce the risk to one that is reasonably practicable. Nine and above require immediate attention Hierarchy of Control PIGSRISE (reverse) ERICPD Eliminate, Substitute, Isolate, Reduce, Safe Systems of Work, Good Housekeeping, IITS, PPE Eliminate Reduce Isolate Control Personal Protective Equipment Discipline Questions? Further Information Further information can be obtained from the Health and Safety Executive website. http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/index.htm or The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work https://osha.europa.eu/en/topics/riskassessment Summary •Employers must undertake Risk Assessments By Law. •Involve employees in carrying out Risk Assessments. •Follow the “5 steps to Risk Assessment”; •Identify the hazards •Decide who can be harmed •Evaluate the risk (high, medium, low) •Record significant findings •Review and revise • Provide Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision and communicate the findings of the Risk Assessments to employees.