Chapter Introduction Section 1: Cold War Origins Section 2: Postwar Politics Section 3: The Korean War Section 4: America in the 1950s Visual Summary Cold War Origins Essential Question How and why did America aid European nations after World War II? Postwar Politics Essential Question What economic, social, and political challenges did Americans face after World War II? The Korean War Essential Question How and why did America involve itself in the Korean conflict of the 1950s? America in the 1950s Essential Question How did the American prosperity of the 1950s affect the country’s economy and culture? How and why did America aid European nations after World War II? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • iron curtain • espionage • containment • blacklist • airlift • perjury • cold war • censure • subversion Academic Vocabulary • cooperate • pose Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Harry S. Truman • Mao Zedong Are you concerned more about the threat of nuclear war or the threat of terrorism? A. Nuclear war B. Terrorism A. A B. B 0% B A 0% Wartime Diplomacy During World War II, the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain worked out plans for the organization of the postwar world. Wartime Diplomacy (cont.) • In February 1945, the “Big Three” Allied leaders—Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin—met at Yalta to discuss issues affecting the postwar world. • The Allies agreed to divide Germany into four zones, with each zone run by an Allied power. Wartime Diplomacy (cont.) • President Roosevelt died suddenly on April 12, 1945, and Vice President Harry S. Truman succeeded him. • On June 26, in San Francisco, California, 50 nations signed the charter creating the United Nations, which they hoped could settle international disputes and prevent future wars. Which of the following was NOT one of the “Big Three” Allied leaders? A. Franklin D. Roosevelt B. Harry S. Truman 0% D A 0% A B C 0% D C D. Joseph Stalin B C. Winston Churchill A. B. C. 0% D. Soviet Expansion in Europe Soviet efforts to spread communism in Europe led to tense relations with the United States, which wanted to contain communism. Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.) • Distrust soon arose between the West and the Soviets, and Europe split into two armed camps—Communist Eastern Europe and democratic Western Europe. • Winston Churchill believed that an “iron curtain” had descended on Europe, permanently cutting off Eastern Europe from the West. Europe After World War II Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.) • Since the United States and the Soviet Union could not cooperate, the United States adopted the policy of containment— holding back the Soviets using military as well as nonmilitary ways. Europe After World War II Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.) • When Communists attempted to overthrow Greece’s pro-Western government, President Truman provided immediate aid to the Greeks. – This pledge that the United States would fight the spread of communism worldwide came to be known as the Truman Doctrine. Europe After World War II Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.) • The economic support for Western Europe known as the Marshall Plan helped weaken the appeal of communism. Europe After World War II Who coined the phrase “the iron curtain”? A. Franklin D. Roosevelt B. Harry S. Truman 0% D A 0% A B C 0% D C D. Joseph Stalin B C. Winston Churchill A. B. C. 0% D. Crisis in Berlin The Western Allies successfully resisted Soviet attempts to halt the Allies’ plans for uniting West Germany. Crisis in Berlin (cont.) • Stalin feared that a reunited Germany would pose a threat to the Soviet Union. • On June 24, 1948, Soviet troops created a blockade, cutting off West Berlin’s 2.2 million citizens from needed supplies. – The Soviets hoped this blockade would force the Americans, British, and French to reconsider their plan for unification. Berlin Airlift Crisis in Berlin (cont.) • President Truman sent supplies through an airlift, and eventually Stalin ended the blockade. • By the end of 1949, there were two German states—the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), allied with the United States, and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), a Communist state tied to the Soviet Union. Berlin Airlift How did the Allies get supplies past the Soviet blockade of West Berlin? A. By truck B. By boat 0% D A B C 0% D C 0% A D. They were not able to get supplies past the blockade. B C. By plane A. B. C. 0% D. Two Armed Camps The United States and the Soviet Union formed rival alliances, and their competition for influence spread to other parts of the world. Two Armed Camps (cont.) • The Berlin crisis showed that the United States and the Soviet Union were locked in a cold war—a war in which the two enemies did not actually fight each other. • In 1949 the United States, Canada, and 10 Western European nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO. Two Armed Camps (cont.) • In response, the Soviets in 1955 set up a military alliance—the Warsaw Pact—with the Communist governments of Eastern Europe. • As the Cold War deepened, many nations experienced dramatic change. Many areas broke free of colonial rule and became independent. – The Philippines gained independence from the United States in 1946. Two Armed Camps (cont.) – In the late 1940s, the South Asian countries of India, Pakistan, and Burma won freedom from British rule. – During the 1950s and 1960s, more than 25 African nations gained independence from European powers. – After declaring independence, the Jewish state of Israel was attacked by the armies of neighboring Arab countries in the first of six major wars between the Arabs and Israelis. Two Armed Camps (cont.) • In 1949, Mao Zedong formed a new Communist state, the People’s Republic of China. • Former leader Chiang Kai-shek retreated with his forces to the island of Taiwan off the southeastern coast of China, and the United States recognized the government in Taiwan as the legitimate government of all China. Which group formed to stop the spread of Soviet influence in Western Europe? A. United Nations B. Warsaw Pact 0% D C B D. House Un-American Activities Committee A C. North Atlantic Treaty Organization A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D Cold War Fears The Cold War heightened Americans’ fears about communism in American society. Cold War Fears (cont.) • The Cold War increased Americans’ fears of Communist subversion, and many Americans worried that Communists had penetrated all levels of American society and were weakening the government. • In response to this “Red Scare,” President Truman ordered an investigation into the loyalty of all federal employees. – Although little evidence of espionage was found, many federal workers lost their jobs. Cold War Fears (cont.) • Several screenwriters and film directors went to jail for refusing to answer questions about their political beliefs or those of their colleagues. – Reacting to pressure, film companies created blacklists—lists of individuals whose loyalty was suspect—that kept people from working in films. Cold War Fears (cont.) • Alger Hiss, a former government official, was accused of spying for the Soviets, found guilty of perjury, and sent to prison. • The Rosenbergs, a couple from New York, were accused of passing secrets about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union and sentenced to death for spying. Cold War Fears (cont.) • From 1950 to 1954, the hunt for Communists was led by Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin, who claimed that a vast Communist network existed within the government. • In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure McCarthy for his wild accusations. What term is used to describe the use of unproven charges to discredit people? A. Censure 0% D 0% A D. Blacklist A B C 0% D C C. Perjury A. B. C. 0% D. B B. McCarthyism What economic, social, and political challenges did Americans face after World War II? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • inflation • desegregate • closed shop Academic Vocabulary • stable • domestic Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Fair Deal • Taft-Hartley Act Is it ever acceptable to segregate people based on race, religion, or ethnic origins? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% B A 0% The Postwar Economy Americans faced rising prices and labor unrest during the late 1940s. The Postwar Economy (cont.) • During the war, government price controls kept the cost of consumer goods stable; however, when the government lifted these controls, prices began to climb. – Because of this inflation, prices rose much faster than wages. The GI Bill The Postwar Economy (cont.) • When employers refused to raise wages, labor strikes broke out and disrupted the economy. • President Truman had to intervene to get striking miners and railroad workers to return to work. The GI Bill What kept prices stable during World War II? A. Inflation B. Government price controls 0% D C A D. An excess supply of most goods B C. The threat of labor strikes A. A B. B C.0% C 0% 0% D. D Truman Faces the Republicans President Truman and the Republican-controlled Congress disagreed over how to solve the nation’s economic problems. Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.) • In September 1945, President Truman presented a plan of domestic reforms aimed at solving some of the nation’s economic problems. – Truman later called this program the Fair Deal. Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.) • Because of opposition by a coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats, Truman’s plan failed to pass in Congress. • In the spring of 1947, Republican legislators introduced the Taft-Hartley Act. The act: – limited the actions workers could take against their employers. Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.) – outlawed the closed shop, or the practice of forcing business owners to hire only union members. – allowed the government to temporarily stop any strike that endangered public health or safety. Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.) • Truman vetoed the act, but the Republicancontrolled Congress overrode Truman’s veto. • Truman and Congress agreed on improving the efficiency of the federal government, which had grown considerably since the New Deal. Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.) • In 1947 Congress passed the National Security Act, which set up several government agencies. – The Department of Defense – The Joint Chiefs of Staff – The National Security Council – The Central Intelligence Agency Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.) • In the presidential election of 1948, Truman faced Republican Thomas Dewey as well as two candidates that split from the Democratic Party—Strom Thurmond and Henry Wallace. • With the Democrats badly divided, Dewey was the favorite to win the election; however, Truman won a narrow victory and the Democrats regained control of both houses of Congress. The Election of 1948 Who was the Progressive Party candidate in the presidential election of 1948? A. Thomas Dewey 0% D 0% A D. Harry S. Truman A B C 0% D C C. Henry Wallace A. B. C. 0% D. B B. Strom Thurmond A Fair Deal for Americans The Truman administration pushed for civil rights reforms. A Fair Deal for Americans (cont.) • After being reelected, Truman quickly reintroduced the Fair Deal legislation he presented to Congress in 1945. • Congress passed laws to raise the minimum wage, expand Social Security benefits for senior citizens, and provide funds for housing for low-income families. • Truman called for an end to discrimination based on race, religion, or ethnic origins. A Fair Deal for Americans (cont.) • Truman ordered federal agencies to end job discrimination against African Americans and ordered the armed forces to desegregate. • Although much of the president’s Fair Deal vision went unfulfilled, he made an important start toward improving the lives of millions of Americans. Which of the following was NOT a part of Truman’s Fair Deal proposal? A. Increase minimum wage 0% D C D. Increase military spending B C. Provide funds for housing for low-income families A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D A B. Expand Social Security benefits How and why did America involve itself in the Korean conflict of the 1950s? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • stalemate • demilitarized zone Academic Vocabulary • assure • conclude Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Douglas MacArthur Do you agree with MacArthur that nuclear weapons should have been used to more quickly end the Korean War? A. Strongly agree 0% D C D. Strongly disagree B C. Somewhat disagree A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D A B. Somewhat agree Conflict in Korea Americans under the United Nations’ flag fought a war in Korea during the early 1950s. Conflict in Korea (cont.) • At the end of World War II, the Americans and the Soviets divided the east Asian country of Korea at the 38th parallel of latitude. • On June 25, 1950, the Communist forces of North Korea invaded South Korea in an attempt to take over that country. The Korean War 1950–1953 Conflict in Korea (cont.) • Truman persuaded the United Nations to send troops, most of which were American and under the command of U.S. general Douglas MacArthur. • Encouraged by early success, General MacArthur urged President Truman to order the invasion of North Korea and create a unified and democratic Korea. The Korean War 1950–1953 Conflict in Korea (cont.) • The Chinese Communists saw the advancing troops as a threat, and hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops crossed the border and drove the UN forces back to South Korea. The Korean War 1950–1953 What line divided North and South Korea? A. The 28th parallel B. The 36th parallel A 0% 0% D D. The 44th parallel A B C 0% D C parallel A. B. C. 0% D. B C. The 38th American Leadership Divided President Truman and General MacArthur disagreed over how to fight the Korean War. American Leadership Divided (cont.) • United Nations forces launched a counteroffensive and pushed the Communists back across the 38th parallel, and the war became a stalemate which lasted for almost two years. • On April 11, 1951, President Truman concluded that he must relieve General MacArthur of his command in Korea due to their different opinions on the war. American Leadership Divided (cont.) • In 1953, a cease-fire agreement was signed that set up a demilitarized zone between the two Koreas. • The Korean War ended with no victory for either side and almost no change in territory. How did Truman try to contain communism on the Korean Peninsula? A. By dividing Korea B. By attacking China 0% D 0% C B A A. A C. By defending South Korea B. B D. By bombing the Soviet Union C. C 0% 0% D. D How did the American prosperity of the 1950s affect the country’s economy and culture? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • surplus • affluence • arms race • materialism • summit Academic Vocabulary • nuclear • economy Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Dwight D. Eisenhower • Nikita Khrushchev Rate your agreement with the following statement: The budget of the United States should always be balanced. A. Strongly agree 0% D C D. Strongly disagree B C. Somewhat disagree A. A B. B 0% C. 0% C0% D. D A B. Somewhat agree The Eisenhower Years President Eisenhower promoted policies to maintain prosperity at home and to compete with the Soviets abroad. The Eisenhower Years (cont.) • In November 1952, Americans elected Dwight D. Eisenhower to the presidency in a landslide victory over Illinois Governor Adlai E. Stevenson. • During his two terms in office, Eisenhower followed a moderate, or middle-of-the-road, approach to domestic policy. • When Eisenhower completed his second term in 1961, the federal budget had a surplus of $300 million. Election of 1952 The Eisenhower Years (cont.) • In 1956 Congress passed the Federal Highway Act, which funded the building of more than 40,000 miles of highways that tied the nation together. • During the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a nuclear arms race. – Both sides built more and more nuclear warheads and guided missiles that could destroy the other side many times over. Election of 1952 The Eisenhower Years (cont.) – With the threat of nuclear destruction so great, a badly managed crisis could lead to all-out war. • In early November 1956, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev ordered Soviet forces to crush a revolt in Hungary. – President Eisenhower condemned the Soviet crackdown but did not intervene. Election of 1952 The Eisenhower Years (cont.) • In July 1955, Eisenhower, NATO leaders, and Soviet officials met at a summit conference in Geneva, Switzerland, and discussed major issues, raising hopes for peace. Election of 1952 What term describes when your income is larger than your expenditures? A. Debt 0% D 0% A D. Economy A B C 0% D C C. Summit A. B. C. 0% D. B B. Surplus Prosperity and Change A booming economy changed the social and cultural life of Americans during the 1950s. Prosperity and Change (cont.) • During the 1950s, the American economy grew rapidly. • Affluence, the growing variety and quantity of products available, and expanded advertising all played a role in an increased demand for consumer goods. Economics & History Prosperity and Change (cont.) • Television became the main form of entertainment as well as an important source of news and information for American families. • A new form of music—rock ‘n’ roll—achieved great popularity among teenagers. Economics & History Which of the following was NOT a fad of the 1950s? A. Hula hoops B. Poodle skirts 0% D A 0% A B C 0% D C D. Levi’s A. B. C. 0% D. B C. Crew cuts Problems in a Time of Plenty Many Americans did not share in the prosperity of the 1950s. Problems in a Time of Plenty (cont.) • Many farmers and people in Appalachia lived in poverty and did not share in the prosperity of the 1950s. • As increasing numbers of middle-class Americans moved to the suburbs in the 1950s, the inner cities became islands of poverty. • The urban poor struggled not only with poverty but also with racial discrimination in employment, housing, and education. Problems in a Time of Plenty (cont.) • Some Americans felt that the sameness of corporate and suburban life and the increase of American materialism had a cost. • A group of writers called the Beats also criticized American society. • With American society changing, women and African Americans became increasingly impatient for change and less willing to accept their status as second-class citizens. To what does the “white flight” refer? A. The movement of whites to the suburbs B. The tour of American warships around the world 0% D C B A A. A C. The invention of the airplane B. B D. The movement of whites to 0%C.0%C 0% Appalachia D. D Section Transparencies Menu Daily Test Practice Transparency 27–1 Lesson Transparency 27A Lesson Transparency 27B Select a transparency to view. Section Transparencies Menu Daily Test Practice Transparency 27–2 Select a transparency to view. Section Transparencies Menu Daily Test Practice Transparency 27–3 Select a transparency to view. Section Transparencies Menu Daily Test Practice Transparency 27–4 Lesson Transparency 27C Select a transparency to view. iron curtain the political and military barrier that isolated Soviet-controlled countries of Eastern Europe after World War II containment the policy or process of preventing the expansion of a hostile power airlift a system of transporting food and supplies by aircraft into an area otherwise impossible to reach cold war a struggle over political differences between nations carried on by methods short of war subversion an attempt to overthrow a government by persons working secretly from within espionage spying blacklist list of persons who are disapproved of and are punished, such as by being refused jobs perjury lying when one has sworn an oath to tell the truth censure to express formal disapproval of some action cooperate work together pose to present inflation a continuous rise in the price of goods and services closed shop a workplace in which the employer, by agreement, hires only union members desegregate to end the practice of separating or isolating people of different races stable unchanging domestic home-based, internal stalemate a situation during a conflict when action stops because both sides are equally powerful and neither will give in demilitarized zone a region where no military forces or weapons are permitted assure to promise conclude decide surplus excess; amount left over after necessary expenses are paid arms race the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to build more and more weapons in an effort to surpass the other’s military strength summit a meeting of heads of government affluence the state of having much wealth materialism attaching too much importance to physical possessions and comforts nuclear atomic economy system of production, distribution, and consumption To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. 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