09 TAJMT Chapter 13

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Chapter Introduction
Section 1: Cold War Origins
Section 2: Postwar Politics
Section 3: The Korean War
Section 4: America in the 1950s
Visual Summary
Cold War Origins
Essential Question How and why did America
aid European nations after World War II?
Postwar Politics
Essential Question What economic, social,
and political challenges did Americans face
after World War II?
The Korean War
Essential Question How and why did America
involve itself in the Korean conflict of the
1950s?
America in the 1950s
Essential Question How did the American
prosperity of the 1950s affect the country’s
economy and culture?
How and why did America aid
European nations after World War II?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• iron curtain
• espionage
• containment
• blacklist
• airlift
• perjury
• cold war
• censure
• subversion
Academic Vocabulary
• cooperate
• pose
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Harry S. Truman
• Mao Zedong
Are you concerned more about the
threat of nuclear war or the threat of
terrorism?
A. Nuclear war
B. Terrorism
A. A
B. B
0%
B
A
0%
Wartime Diplomacy
During World War II, the United
States, the Soviet Union, and Great
Britain worked out plans for the
organization of the postwar world.
Wartime Diplomacy (cont.)
• In February 1945, the “Big Three” Allied
leaders—Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston
Churchill, and Joseph Stalin—met at Yalta to
discuss issues affecting the postwar world.
• The Allies agreed to divide Germany into
four zones, with each zone run by an Allied
power.
Wartime Diplomacy (cont.)
• President Roosevelt died suddenly on April
12, 1945, and Vice President Harry S.
Truman succeeded him.
• On June 26, in San Francisco, California, 50
nations signed the charter creating the
United Nations, which they hoped could
settle international disputes and prevent
future wars.
Which of the following was NOT one
of the “Big Three” Allied leaders?
A. Franklin D. Roosevelt
B. Harry S. Truman
0%
D
A
0%
A
B
C
0%
D
C
D. Joseph Stalin
B
C. Winston Churchill
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
Soviet Expansion in Europe
Soviet efforts to spread communism
in Europe led to tense relations with
the United States, which wanted to
contain communism.
Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.)
• Distrust soon arose between the West and
the Soviets, and Europe split into two armed
camps—Communist Eastern Europe and
democratic Western Europe.
• Winston Churchill believed that an “iron
curtain” had descended on Europe,
permanently cutting off Eastern Europe from
the West.
Europe After World War II
Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.)
• Since the United States and the Soviet
Union could not cooperate, the United
States adopted the policy of containment—
holding back the Soviets using military as
well as nonmilitary ways.
Europe After World War II
Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.)
• When Communists attempted to overthrow
Greece’s pro-Western government,
President Truman provided immediate aid to
the Greeks.
– This pledge that the United States would
fight the spread of communism worldwide
came to be known as the Truman
Doctrine.
Europe After World War II
Soviet Expansion in Europe (cont.)
• The economic support for Western Europe
known as the Marshall Plan helped weaken
the appeal of communism.
Europe After World War II
Who coined the phrase “the iron
curtain”?
A. Franklin D. Roosevelt
B. Harry S. Truman
0%
D
A
0%
A
B
C
0%
D
C
D. Joseph Stalin
B
C. Winston Churchill
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
Crisis in Berlin
The Western Allies successfully
resisted Soviet attempts to halt the
Allies’ plans for uniting West
Germany.
Crisis in Berlin (cont.)
• Stalin feared that a reunited Germany would
pose a threat to the Soviet Union.
• On June 24, 1948, Soviet troops created a
blockade, cutting off West Berlin’s 2.2 million
citizens from needed supplies.
– The Soviets hoped this blockade would
force the Americans, British, and
French to reconsider their plan
for unification.
Berlin Airlift
Crisis in Berlin (cont.)
• President Truman sent supplies through an
airlift, and eventually Stalin ended the
blockade.
• By the end of 1949, there were two German
states—the Federal Republic of Germany
(West Germany), allied with the United
States, and the German Democratic
Republic (East Germany), a Communist
state tied to the Soviet Union.
Berlin Airlift
How did the Allies get supplies past
the Soviet blockade of West Berlin?
A. By truck
B. By boat
0%
D
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
A
D. They were not able to
get supplies past the
blockade.
B
C. By plane
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
Two Armed Camps
The United States and the Soviet
Union formed rival alliances, and
their competition for influence
spread to other parts of the world.
Two Armed Camps (cont.)
• The Berlin crisis showed that the United
States and the Soviet Union were locked in a
cold war—a war in which the two enemies
did not actually fight each other.
• In 1949 the United States, Canada, and 10
Western European nations formed the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO.
Two Armed Camps (cont.)
• In response, the Soviets in 1955 set up a
military alliance—the Warsaw Pact—with the
Communist governments of Eastern Europe.
• As the Cold War deepened, many nations
experienced dramatic change. Many areas
broke free of colonial rule and became
independent.
– The Philippines gained independence
from the United States in 1946.
Two Armed Camps (cont.)
– In the late 1940s, the South Asian countries
of India, Pakistan, and Burma won freedom
from British rule.
– During the 1950s and 1960s, more than 25
African nations gained independence from
European powers.
– After declaring independence, the Jewish
state of Israel was attacked by the armies of
neighboring Arab countries in the first of six
major wars between the Arabs and Israelis.
Two Armed Camps (cont.)
• In 1949, Mao Zedong formed a new
Communist state, the People’s Republic of
China.
• Former leader Chiang Kai-shek retreated
with his forces to the island of Taiwan off the
southeastern coast of China, and the United
States recognized the government in Taiwan
as the legitimate government of all China.
Which group formed to stop the spread of
Soviet influence in Western Europe?
A. United Nations
B. Warsaw Pact
0%
D
C
B
D. House Un-American
Activities Committee
A
C. North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
A. A
B. B
C. C
0%
0%
0%
D. D
Cold War Fears
The Cold War heightened
Americans’ fears about communism
in American society.
Cold War Fears (cont.)
• The Cold War increased Americans’ fears of
Communist subversion, and many Americans
worried that Communists had penetrated all
levels of American society and were
weakening the government.
• In response to this “Red Scare,” President
Truman ordered an investigation into the
loyalty of all federal employees.
– Although little evidence of espionage was
found, many federal workers lost their jobs.
Cold War Fears (cont.)
• Several screenwriters and film directors went
to jail for refusing to answer questions about
their political beliefs or those of their
colleagues.
– Reacting to pressure, film companies
created blacklists—lists of individuals
whose loyalty was suspect—that kept
people from working in films.
Cold War Fears (cont.)
• Alger Hiss, a former government official, was
accused of spying for the Soviets, found
guilty of perjury, and sent to prison.
• The Rosenbergs, a couple from New York,
were accused of passing secrets about the
atomic bomb to the Soviet Union and
sentenced to death for spying.
Cold War Fears (cont.)
• From 1950 to 1954, the hunt for Communists
was led by Republican Senator Joseph
McCarthy of Wisconsin, who claimed that a
vast Communist network existed within the
government.
• In December 1954, the Senate voted to
censure McCarthy for his wild accusations.
What term is used to describe the use
of unproven charges to discredit
people?
A. Censure
0%
D
0%
A
D. Blacklist
A
B
C
0%
D
C
C. Perjury
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
B. McCarthyism
What economic, social, and political
challenges did Americans face after
World War II?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• inflation
• desegregate
• closed shop
Academic Vocabulary
• stable
• domestic
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Fair Deal
• Taft-Hartley Act
Is it ever acceptable to segregate
people based on race, religion, or
ethnic origins?
A. Yes
B. No
A. A
B. B
0%
B
A
0%
The Postwar Economy
Americans faced rising prices and
labor unrest during the late 1940s.
The Postwar Economy (cont.)
• During the war, government price controls
kept the cost of consumer goods stable;
however, when the government lifted these
controls, prices began to climb.
– Because of this inflation, prices rose
much faster than wages.
The GI Bill
The Postwar Economy (cont.)
• When employers refused to raise wages,
labor strikes broke out and disrupted the
economy.
• President Truman had to intervene to get
striking miners and railroad workers to return
to work.
The GI Bill
What kept prices stable during World
War II?
A. Inflation
B. Government price controls
0%
D
C
A
D. An excess supply of
most goods
B
C. The threat of labor strikes
A. A
B. B
C.0% C 0%
0%
D. D
Truman Faces the Republicans
President Truman and the
Republican-controlled Congress
disagreed over how to solve the
nation’s economic problems.
Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.)
• In September 1945, President Truman
presented a plan of domestic reforms aimed
at solving some of the nation’s economic
problems.
– Truman later called this program the Fair
Deal.
Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.)
• Because of opposition by a coalition of
Republicans and Southern Democrats,
Truman’s plan failed to pass in Congress.
• In the spring of 1947, Republican legislators
introduced the Taft-Hartley Act. The act:
– limited the actions workers could take
against their employers.
Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.)
– outlawed the closed shop, or the practice
of forcing business owners to hire only
union members.
– allowed the government to temporarily
stop any strike that endangered public
health or safety.
Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.)
• Truman vetoed the act, but the Republicancontrolled Congress overrode Truman’s
veto.
• Truman and Congress agreed on improving
the efficiency of the federal government,
which had grown considerably since the
New Deal.
Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.)
• In 1947 Congress passed the National
Security Act, which set up several
government agencies.
– The Department of Defense
– The Joint Chiefs of Staff
– The National Security Council
– The Central Intelligence Agency
Truman Faces the Republicans (cont.)
• In the presidential election of 1948, Truman
faced Republican Thomas Dewey as well as
two candidates that split from the
Democratic Party—Strom Thurmond and
Henry Wallace.
• With the Democrats badly divided, Dewey
was the favorite to win the election; however,
Truman won a narrow victory and
the Democrats regained control
of both houses of Congress.
The Election of 1948
Who was the Progressive Party
candidate in the presidential election
of 1948?
A. Thomas Dewey
0%
D
0%
A
D. Harry S. Truman
A
B
C
0%
D
C
C. Henry Wallace
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
B. Strom Thurmond
A Fair Deal for Americans
The Truman administration pushed
for civil rights reforms.
A Fair Deal for Americans (cont.)
• After being reelected, Truman quickly
reintroduced the Fair Deal legislation he
presented to Congress in 1945.
• Congress passed laws to raise the minimum
wage, expand Social Security benefits for
senior citizens, and provide funds for
housing for low-income families.
• Truman called for an end to discrimination
based on race, religion, or ethnic origins.
A Fair Deal for Americans (cont.)
• Truman ordered federal agencies to end job
discrimination against African Americans and
ordered the armed forces to desegregate.
• Although much of the president’s Fair Deal
vision went unfulfilled, he made an important
start toward improving the lives of millions of
Americans.
Which of the following was NOT a
part of Truman’s Fair Deal proposal?
A. Increase minimum wage
0%
D
C
D. Increase military spending
B
C. Provide funds for housing
for low-income families
A. A
B. B
C. C
0%
0%
0%
D. D
A
B. Expand Social Security
benefits
How and why did America involve
itself in the Korean conflict of the
1950s?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• stalemate
• demilitarized zone
Academic Vocabulary
• assure
• conclude
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Douglas MacArthur
Do you agree with MacArthur that nuclear
weapons should have been used to more
quickly end the Korean War?
A. Strongly agree
0%
D
C
D. Strongly disagree
B
C. Somewhat disagree
A. A
B. B
C. C
0%
0%
0%
D. D
A
B. Somewhat agree
Conflict in Korea
Americans under the United
Nations’ flag fought a war in Korea
during the early 1950s.
Conflict in Korea (cont.)
• At the end of World War II, the Americans and
the Soviets divided the east Asian country of
Korea at the 38th parallel of latitude.
• On June 25, 1950, the Communist forces of
North Korea invaded South Korea in an
attempt to take over that country.
The Korean War 1950–1953
Conflict in Korea (cont.)
• Truman persuaded the United Nations to send
troops, most of which were American and
under the command of U.S. general Douglas
MacArthur.
• Encouraged by early success, General
MacArthur urged President Truman to order
the invasion of North Korea and create a
unified and democratic Korea.
The Korean War 1950–1953
Conflict in Korea (cont.)
• The Chinese Communists saw the
advancing troops as a threat, and hundreds
of thousands of Chinese troops crossed the
border and drove the UN forces back to
South Korea.
The Korean War 1950–1953
What line divided North and South
Korea?
A. The 28th parallel
B. The 36th parallel
A
0%
0%
D
D. The 44th parallel
A
B
C
0%
D
C
parallel
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
C. The
38th
American Leadership Divided
President Truman and General
MacArthur disagreed over how to
fight the Korean War.
American Leadership Divided (cont.)
• United Nations forces launched a
counteroffensive and pushed the
Communists back across the 38th parallel,
and the war became a stalemate which
lasted for almost two years.
• On April 11, 1951, President Truman
concluded that he must relieve General
MacArthur of his command in Korea due to
their different opinions on the war.
American Leadership Divided (cont.)
• In 1953, a cease-fire agreement was signed
that set up a demilitarized zone between
the two Koreas.
• The Korean War ended with no victory for
either side and almost no change in territory.
How did Truman try to contain communism
on the Korean Peninsula?
A. By dividing Korea
B. By attacking China
0%
D
0%
C
B
A
A. A
C. By defending South Korea
B. B
D. By bombing the Soviet Union
C. C
0%
0%
D. D
How did the American prosperity of
the 1950s affect the country’s
economy and culture?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• surplus
• affluence
• arms race
• materialism
• summit
Academic Vocabulary
• nuclear
• economy
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Dwight D. Eisenhower
• Nikita Khrushchev
Rate your agreement with the following
statement: The budget of the United States
should always be balanced.
A. Strongly agree
0%
D
C
D. Strongly disagree
B
C. Somewhat disagree
A. A
B. B
0% C.
0% C0%
D. D
A
B. Somewhat agree
The Eisenhower Years
President Eisenhower promoted
policies to maintain prosperity at
home and to compete with the
Soviets abroad.
The Eisenhower Years (cont.)
• In November 1952, Americans elected
Dwight D. Eisenhower to the presidency in
a landslide victory over Illinois Governor
Adlai E. Stevenson.
• During his two terms in office, Eisenhower
followed a moderate, or middle-of-the-road,
approach to domestic policy.
• When Eisenhower completed his second
term in 1961, the federal budget
had a surplus of
$300 million.
Election of 1952
The Eisenhower Years (cont.)
• In 1956 Congress passed the Federal
Highway Act, which funded the building of
more than 40,000 miles of highways that tied
the nation together.
• During the 1950s, the United States and the
Soviet Union engaged in a nuclear arms race.
– Both sides built more and more nuclear
warheads and guided missiles
that could destroy the other side
many times over.
Election of 1952
The Eisenhower Years (cont.)
– With the threat of nuclear destruction so
great, a badly managed crisis could lead
to all-out war.
• In early November 1956, Soviet leader
Nikita Khrushchev ordered Soviet forces to
crush a revolt in Hungary.
– President Eisenhower condemned the
Soviet crackdown but did not intervene.
Election of 1952
The Eisenhower Years (cont.)
• In July 1955, Eisenhower, NATO leaders,
and Soviet officials met at a summit
conference in Geneva, Switzerland, and
discussed major issues, raising hopes for
peace.
Election of 1952
What term describes when your
income is larger than your
expenditures?
A. Debt
0%
D
0%
A
D. Economy
A
B
C
0%
D
C
C. Summit
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
B. Surplus
Prosperity and Change
A booming economy changed the
social and cultural life of Americans
during the 1950s.
Prosperity and Change (cont.)
• During the 1950s, the American economy
grew rapidly.
• Affluence, the growing variety and quantity
of products available, and expanded
advertising all played a role in an increased
demand for consumer goods.
Economics & History
Prosperity and Change (cont.)
• Television became the main form of
entertainment as well as an important source
of news and information for American
families.
• A new form of music—rock ‘n’ roll—achieved
great popularity among teenagers.
Economics & History
Which of the following was NOT a fad
of the 1950s?
A. Hula hoops
B. Poodle skirts
0%
D
A
0%
A
B
C
0%
D
C
D. Levi’s
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
C. Crew cuts
Problems in a Time of Plenty
Many Americans did not share in
the prosperity of the 1950s.
Problems in a Time of Plenty (cont.)
• Many farmers and people in Appalachia
lived in poverty and did not share in the
prosperity of the 1950s.
• As increasing numbers of middle-class
Americans moved to the suburbs in the
1950s, the inner cities became islands of
poverty.
• The urban poor struggled not only with
poverty but also with racial discrimination in
employment, housing, and education.
Problems in a Time of Plenty (cont.)
• Some Americans felt that the sameness of
corporate and suburban life and the increase
of American materialism had a cost.
• A group of writers called the Beats also
criticized American society.
• With American society changing, women and
African Americans became increasingly
impatient for change and less willing to
accept their status as second-class citizens.
To what does the “white flight” refer?
A. The movement of whites
to the suburbs
B. The tour of American
warships around the world
0%
D
C
B
A
A. A
C. The invention of the airplane
B. B
D. The movement of whites to 0%C.0%C 0%
Appalachia
D. D
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iron curtain
the political and military barrier that
isolated Soviet-controlled countries of
Eastern Europe after World War II
containment
the policy or process of preventing
the expansion of a hostile power
airlift
a system of transporting food and
supplies by aircraft into an area
otherwise impossible to reach
cold war
a struggle over political differences
between nations carried on by
methods short of war
subversion
an attempt to overthrow a
government by persons working
secretly from within
espionage
spying
blacklist
list of persons who are disapproved
of and are punished, such as by
being refused jobs
perjury
lying when one has sworn an oath to
tell the truth
censure
to express formal disapproval of
some action
cooperate
work together
pose
to present
inflation
a continuous rise in the price of goods
and services
closed shop
a workplace in which the employer, by
agreement, hires only union members
desegregate
to end the practice of separating
or isolating people of different races
stable
unchanging
domestic
home-based, internal
stalemate
a situation during a conflict when action
stops because both sides are equally
powerful and neither will give in
demilitarized zone
a region where no military forces or
weapons are permitted
assure
to promise
conclude
decide
surplus
excess; amount left over after
necessary expenses are paid
arms race
the competition between the
United States and the Soviet Union to
build more and more weapons in an
effort to surpass the other’s military
strength
summit
a meeting of heads of government
affluence
the state of having much wealth
materialism
attaching too much importance
to physical possessions and comforts
nuclear
atomic
economy
system of production, distribution,
and consumption
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