gentrification

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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities
Gentrification
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
What is gentrification? (1)
 The rehabilitation/renewal of a deteriorated neighbourhood
by new residents who are wealthier than the long-time
residents. This can cause an increase in house prices and
lead to the displacement of the long-time residents
 It is small-scale and incremental, and instigated by individual
people
 It is often accompanied by landscape and street furniture
improvements
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
What is gentrification? (2)
‘A stroll along Bellevue Road, Wandsworth and its surrounding streets offers a
taste of a process that has been happening all over London. Gone are the
working classes and the establishments that served them. Bellevue Road now
has delicatessens, wine bars, picture galleries, alfresco diners and estate
agents.
Streets once lined with Escorts and Astras now sport Jeep Cherokees and
convertible Alfa Romeos. During the week, nannies and au pairs look after the
children of merchant bankers, advertising executives and new media
professionals who have all played some part in the transformation of the area
into “Bellevue Village”.’
Tom Slater
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Where has it spread?
In South London, following the course of
the Northern Line is like following the
path of gentrification. It started in
Clapham North in the late 1980s and is
now sweeping through Tooting on a
seemingly endless march towards
Morden in Surrey at the end of the line.
Houses near Tooting Broadway have
doubled in price in 2 years, and there
are new services — trendy cafes, bars,
delicatessens and health and fitness
clubs.
The Northern Line in South London
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Notting Hill
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Notting Hill: a brief history


Although the place is now a bustling urban area, in the mid-eighteenth century it
was a country hamlet, known for its gravel pits and roadside inns, which proved a
magnet for highwaymen
The unpopular tollgate, which gave the main road its name, appeared at this time

Industrialisation brought workers in from the countryside, with landlords building
tiny terraced houses to rent to the poor

In Victorian times, Notting Hill was a rough, working-class area and by the 1950s
the area had become synonymous with slum landlords and inner-city deprivation

In 1958, it was the scene of race riots after tensions arose between the newly
arrived Afro-Caribbean community and the teddy boys of the fascist British Union

A second riot took place during the infamous Notting Hill Carnival of 1976
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Notting Hill: now
 The past 30 years have seen a steady northwards swarm of
gentrification, with estate agents coining names like ‘Hillgate
Village’ for previously working-class neighbourhoods, sending
property prices rocketing
 Houses can cost more here than in ultra-upmarket Mayfair
 Notting Hill’s secluded communal gardens, sandwiched between the
rows of houses and scarcely visible from the street, make it
London’s most desirable area for families
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Who’s responsible?
 Notting Hill, the movie, helped popularise the area, but
gentrification was underway long beforehand
 Movie stars, rock singers, media types and fashion designers (such
as Stella McCartney) are flooding into the area, which has acquired
the sort of atmosphere associated with King’s Road, Chelsea, in the
1960s
 The Canal Way branch of Sainsbury’s near the Ladbroke Grove tube
station is now said to be one of the best places in London to spot
celebrities
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Notting Hill: the best places to eat,
drink and be merry…
 Veronica’s — this place devotes itself to reviving Britain’s culinary
heritage, serving historical dishes derived from 2,000-year-old
menus




The Westbourne Pub — with its trendy crowds
Lazy Daisy Café — famous for its delicious puddings and cakes
Sausage and Mash
The Golbourne Road area — well known for its Portuguese and
Moroccan eateries and the infamous Trellick Tower
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Trellick Tower (1)
 Trellick Tower was Britain’s biggest apartment block when it was
built in 1973 and for many years it epitomised everything that was
wrong with Modernist high-rise buildings
 Stories abounded of women being raped in lifts, children being
attacked by heroin addicts and squatters setting fire to flats
 It was built by Hungarian-born architect Erno Goldfinger. Ian
Fleming, the creator of James Bond, found Goldfinger’s work so
distasteful that he named the novel and classic villain after him
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Trellick Tower (2)
 Since the installation of a concierge and extra security, the tower’s
reputation has been transformed
 The Trellick Tower is now something of a style icon, becoming a
Grade II listed building in 1998
 It is considered quite a ‘trendy’ address
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
The Portobello Road
 The Portobello Road is the world’s most famous market — it is really
several markets one after the other and you can buy just about
anything there — people have been doing so since 1837
 The market (known locally as ‘the lane’) serves up three
experiences: antiques to the south, fruit and vegetables in the
middle, and second-hand clothing, bedding and bits and bobs to the
north
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Notting Hill Carnival
 Notting Hill has a large Caribbean population and the 3-day carnival
is held over the last Bank Holiday weekend of August
 It is the largest street festival outside Rio de Janeiro, attended by
over 1 million people
 Revellers are drawn in by the colour, people, food, huge sound
systems pumping out Caribbean music, dancing and a riotous allday street party during the grand parade of floats
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
Is it all good? Some quotes
 ‘No — the truth is, it’s extremely expensive and those who are not
rich are very poor.’
 ‘The average standard of living is still low, the streets are filled with
litter and the buildings are covered with graffiti.’
 ‘Some parts are just an overpriced and overcrowded bedsit land.’
 ‘Very over-rated as a living area…that film…if I ever meet Hugh
Grant, I’m going to punch him!’
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AQA A2 Geography: The human options
World cities: Gentrification
The good and the bad
Positive
Negative
Stabilisation of declining
Displacement through
areas
rent/price increases
Increased property values
Community resentment
and conflict
Reduced vacancy rates
Loss of affordable housing
Reduction of urban sprawl
Homelessness
Increased social mix
Speculative property price
increases
Decreased crime
Changes to local services
Refurbishment of property
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