chapter 12 pp on industrial rev & transcendentalism

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Out of Many
A History of the American People
Seventh Edition Brief Sixth Edition
Chapter
12
Industry and the North
1790s-1840s
Out of Many: A History of the American People, Brief Sixth Edition
John Mack Faragher • Mari Jo Buhle • Daniel Czitrom • Susan H. Armitage
Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Chapter Focus Questions
• What were the effects of the transportation
revolution?
• What was the market revolution?
• What did industrialization affect workers in
early factories?
• How did the market revolution change the
lives of ordinary people?
• What were the values of the new middle
class?
Women Factory Workers Form a
Community in Lowell, Massachusetts
• Young women from New England farms
worked in the Lowell textile mills.
• Initially, the women found the work a
welcome change from farm routine, but
later conflict arose with their employers.
• By the 1830s, mill owners cut wages and
ended their paternalistic practices.
Women Factory Workers Form a
Community in Lowell, Massachusetts
• The result was strikes and the
replacement of the young women with
more manageable Irish immigrants.
• The Market Revolution changed the way
people worked and increased differences
between North and South.
The Transportation Revolution
The Transportation Revolution
• Between 1800 and 1840, the building of
roads and canals, and the steamboat
stimulated the transportation revolution
that:
 encouraged growth;
 promoted the mobility of people and goods;
and
 fostered the growing commercial spirit.
Roads
• Federal Government funds the National
Road in 1808—at the time the single
greatest federal transportation expense
• The National Road tied the East and West
together providing strong evidence of the
nation’s commitment to expansion and
cohesion
MAP 12.1 Travel Times, 1800 and 1857
Railroads (cont'd)
• By the 1850s consolidation of rail lines
facilitated standardization.
Effects of the Transportation
Revolution
• The transportation revolution:
 provided Americans much greater mobility;
 linked Americans beyond the local
communities;
 Made a Market Revolution possible and;
 fostered a risk-taking mentality that promoted
invention and innovation.
MAP 12.2 Commercial Links: Rivers, Canals,
Roads, 1830, and Rail Lines, 1850
The Market Revolution
A woman at a spinning wheel.
The Market Revolution
• The market revolution was caused by
rapid improvements in transportation,
commercialization, and industrialization.
• Power driven machinery produced goods
and replaced hand made products.
The Spread of Commercial Markets
• As more workers became part of the
putting-out system
 wages for piecework replaced bartering.
 families bought mass-produced goods rather
than making them at home.
• Commercialization did not happen
immediately or in the same way across the
nation.
The Yankee West
New Routes West
• Between 1830 and 1850 the population of
the Old Northwest almost quadrupled.
• The National Road and Erie Canal both
facilitated movement from the Northeast to
the Midwest.
• Southern migrants moved to the Old
Southwest.
Commercial Agriculture in the Old
Northwest
• The transportation revolution helped
farmers sell in previously unreachable
markets.
• Government policy encouraged
commercial agriculture by keeping land
cheap.
Commercial Agriculture in the Old
Northwest (cont'd)
• Regional specialization enabled farmers to
concentrate on growing a single crop, but
made them dependent on distant markets
and credit.
Transportation Changes Affect
Western Cities
• Railroads and the Erie Canal dramatically
changed the local economies.
• The transportation changes linked the
Northwest with the Northeast.
• Railroad links made Chicago a major eastwest hub.
• The loser in the economic redistribution
was New Orleans.
Industrialization Begins
British Technology and
American Industrialization
• The Industrial Revolution began in the
British textile industry and created
deplorable conditions.
• Samuel Slater slipped out of England
bringing plans for a cotton-spinning
factory.
• He built a mill that followed British custom
by hiring women and children.
The Lowell Mills
• Francis C. Lowell studied the British
spinning machine.
• Lowell helped invent a power loom and
built the first integrated cotton mill near
Boston in 1814.
• The mill drove smaller competitors out of
business.
• Lowell’s successors soon built an entire
town to house the new enterprise.
MAP 12.4 Lowell, Massachusetts, 1832
Lowell, Massachusetts
The town plan of Lowell shows that factory
growth also led to growth of hotels,
churches, municipal buildings and private
homes.
Timetable from the Lowell Mills illustrates
Family Mills
• Lowell was unique; most mills were
smaller rural mills, locally owned and run.
• Factories developed elaborate divisions of
labor that set up a hierarchy of value and
pay.
• Relations between the small mill
communities and the local farmers were
often difficult.
Family Mills (cont'd)
• Slater’s mills provided a substantial
amount of work for local people.
• Industrial work led to new social
distinctions.
“The American System of
Manufactures”
• American manufacturing based on
interchangeable parts
 rifles developed by Eli Whitney, Simeon
North, John Hall
• Standardization
 sewing machines
• American thinking about democracy and
equality
“The American System of
Manufactures” (cont'd)
• Americans could have mass-produced
copies, indistinguishable from the
originals.
The first gun with interchangeable parts.
Pre-industrial Ways of Working
• Before Lowell, 97% of Americans still lived
on farms and most work was done near or
in the home.
• Pre-industrial labor, both urban and rural,
was patriarchal and followed existing
family patterns dominated by fathers and
husbands.
• Labor organization remained informal and
unrecognized.
Mechanization and Gender
• Industrialization a major threat to status,
independence of skilled male workers
• Breakdown of the family work system
harmed independent urban artisans,
destroyed apprenticeship system
• Garment industry led many women to
work, sewing ready-made clothing for
piece rates.
Time, Work, and Leisure
• Hard adjustment to demands of factory
 Strict regime
 Absenteeism
• A much more rigid separation between
work and leisure developed.
• Leisure spots like taverns emerged, as did
leisure activities like spectator sports,
replacing community-wide events and
casual sociability.
Early Strikes
• Women at Lowell protested a wage cut
with a spontaneous strike in 1834.
• Pressure from workers led New
Hampshire, Maine and Pennsylvania to
adopt “ten hour day” laws in the 1840s.
• Most early strikes were unsuccessful
because owners were able to find new
workers.
Wealth and Rank (cont'd)
• The middle class also changed their
attitudes by:
 Entering new, “white collar” careers tied to
new markets
 emphasizing sobriety, steadiness and
responsibility.
Religion and Personal Life
• Religion helped shape the new attitudes.
• The Second Great Awakening moved from
the frontier to the new market towns
stressing salvation through personal faith.
• Preachers such as Charles G. Finney
urged businessmen to convert and accept
the self-discipline and individualism that
religion brought.
Religion and Personal Life (cont’d)
• Evangelism became the religion of the
new middle class.
• Middle class women promoted Finney’s
ideals of self-discipline and personal
responsibility.
The New Middle-Class Family
• Middle-class women managed their
homes and provided a safe haven for their
husbands.
• Attitudes about appropriate male and
female roles and qualities hardened.
• Men were seen as steady, industrious, and
responsible; women as nurturing, gentle,
and moral.
The New Middle-Class Family
(cont’d)
• The popularity of housekeeping guides
underscored the radical changes occurring
in middle-class families.
• Middle-class couples limited their family
size through birth control, abstinence, and
abortion.
The New Middle-Class Family
(cont’d)
• Physicians urged that sexual impulses be
controlled, particularly among women
whom they presumed to possess superior
morality.
Middle-Class Children
• Mother one responsible for training
children in self-discipline.
• Women formed networks and read advice
magazines to help them in these tasks.
• Mothers made contacts that would
contribute to their children’s latter
development.
Middle-Class Children (cont'd)
• “Childhood” emerged as an ideal as
children prolonged their education and
professional training.
• A man’s success was very much the
result of his family’s efforts.
Sentimentalism and
Transcendentalism
• The competitive spirit led many Americans
to turn to sentimentalism and nostalgia.
• Publishers found a lucrative market for
novels of this genre, especially those
written by women.
Sentimentalism and
Transcendentalism (cont.)
• Sentimentalism became more concerned
with maintaining social codes.
• The intellectual reassurance for middleclass morality came from writers such as
Ralph Waldo Emerson.
• Transcendentalist writers Henry David
Thoreau and Margaret Fuller emphasized
individualism and communion with nature.
Emerson’s romantic glorification of nature
included the notion of himself as a “transparent
eyeball
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