American Revolution

advertisement
The American Revolution
Unit Two
The Duel for North America
1608-1773
I. France Finds a Foothold in Canada
 Latecomer to colonizing New World
 Louis XIV took interest in colonial






expansion
First successful colony Quebec 1609
Samuel de Champlain explore,
solider, leader early French colonial
efforts
Colony known as New France
Problems with Iroquois hampered
French conquest of Ohio River
Valley
French colonies autocratic, no
representative assemblies, no right
to fair trail
Favored Caribbean colonies because
of sugar trade
II. New France Fans Out
 Most valuable resource in New




France- beaver fur
Fur trappers (voyageurs)
trapped beaver, recruited
Indians into fur business
Traveled deep into wilderness,
created ecological disaster by
eliminating most of beaver
population
French Missionaries
attempted to “Christianize”
Indians
Voyageurs, missionaries vital
role as explorers, geographers
II. New France Fans Out
 French try to block British and Spanish expansion
 Detroit (1701), keep out British
 LaSalle claims Mississippi River Valley for France
(Louisiana)
 French fortify posts along river to keep out Spanish,
protect beaver trade
 Establish New Orleans (1718) to keep fur and grain
flowing to mother country, keep MS River from
Spanish
French, Spanish and English Settlers
 Each country had different motives and settlement patterns
 French- friendly relations with Indians (comparatively), tried
to convert Natives to Christianity, came in small numbers,
extractive economic activity (fur trade), explored deep into
continent, Catholic, had economic motives
 Spanish- came to conquer (conquistador), looked for and
found precious minerals, tried to convert Indians, blended
their culture with Native culture, explored deep into continent
to look for wealth, Catholic
 English- came in larger groups (especially NE), settled and
“improved” land, more religiously tolerant, wiped out Indian
culture, established their own “footprint”, did not explore
deep into continent, mostly Protestant
III. Clash of Empires
 Four wars in the 17th and 18th century for control of




Americas
King Williams War 1688-1697, Queen Anne’s
War 1701-1713
Did not involve large numbers of troops, America not
seen as worthy of commitment from European
powers
Usually involved French and Indian allies attacking
English colonial settlements
Deerfield, MA; Schenectady, NY scenes of most
violence
III. Clash of Empires
Treaty of Utrecht 1713 British defeat French
England controlled most of Canada except land along St. Lawrence River
End of war begins period of “salutary neglect”
War of Jenkins Ear 1739 between British and Spanish, mostly in Caribbean,
some fighting in GA
 King Georges War 1744-1748 Colonists and British capture fort at entrance
to St. Lawrence River
 Peace treaty 1748 gives it back to France, enrages colonists
 As a result of wars British military more involved in colonies




IV. George Washington Inaugurates War with France
 Ohio River Valley becomes




source of problems between
British, French
Key to continent for French,
linked colonial holdings
Region key to economic
security for French
Land hungry British
colonists attempt to secure
“rights” to region
French building forts to
secure region
IV. George Washington Inaugurates War with France
 1754 Governor of VA sends group of





militia to secure claims, led by George
Washington
Encounter small group of French
soldiers near Fort Duquesne
(Pittsburgh)
French initially defeated, return with
reinforcements
Washington forced to surrender
1755 British authorities uproot 4,000
French from Nova Scotia, deportees
end up in LA (Cajuns)
Beginning of French and Indian War
V. Global War and Colonial Disunity
 War began in America, others began in Europe
 England and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and




Russia
Bloodiest battles in Germany
“America conquered in Germany” British statesman
William Pitt
French and Indian War beginning of colonial unity
Before certain colonies had enjoyed advantage of
remoteness, now needed to come together to fight
French
V. Global War and Colonial Disunity
 1754 Colonists meet Albany,




NY
Plan to keep Indians in check,
achieve colonial unity,
common defense against
French
7 of 13 colonies show up
Ben Franklin “Join or Die”
slogan, presents Albany Plan
for colonial home rule
(rejected by British), colonists
could not agree on details
First sign of colonial unity
VI. Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath
 Indians allied with French, worried about British settlement
 First part of war went badly for British
 Slow moving, heavy artillery
 Poorly supplied, poorly disciplined colonial militia
 Smaller French force defeated them at Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburg)
 Opened up frontier from NC to PA to Indian attack
 Losses began to pile up for British
VII. Pitt’s Palms of Victory













1757- William Pitt becomes leader of London gov’t
Stopped concentrating on West Indies, focused on
Canada
Understood colonial concerns
Offered colonists a compromise:
col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br.
would reimburse col. assemblies for
their costs.
Remove oppressive gov’t. officials
Result was improved colonial morale by 1758
1758 Louisbourg defeated
32 year old James Wolfe commanded troops that
attacked and defeated Quebec (1759)
1760 Montreal falls, last French stronghold
1763 Treaty of Paris French give up all claims in
NA
Spain received all land west of MS River and New
Orleans
British emerged as dominant regional power, worlds
most powerful navy
VIII. Restless Colonials
Effects of the war on the colonies
 Colonists came out of war confident, shattered myth
of British invincibility
 Barriers of disunity began to dissolve
 Colonists found unity in language, tradition, ideals
 Friction between colonials and British officers
 Colonials felt they deserved credit for war effort
 British said they did not support cause
 Smuggling by colonists helped FR and SP
 British position – colonists demand rights, without
paying dues, war increased British debt
IX. War’s Fateful Aftermath
 With Fr gone colonists could roam freely across





Appalachian Mts.
Spanish, Indian threat reduced
Indians could not play Br and Fr against each other
1763 Ottawa chief Pontiac led attacks on settlers
British retaliated (gave Indians smallpox infected blankets)
British saw need to stabilize frontier now that it was open
to settlement
IX. War’s Fateful Aftermath
Proclamation of 1763
 Prohibited settlement west
of Appalachian Mts.
 Designed not to oppress
colonists but to solve Indian
problem
 Colonists viewed it as form
of oppression
 Settlers went west anyway in
defiance of royal authority
The Road to Revolution
1763-1775
I. Deep Roots of Revolution
 Victory in Seven Years War costly
 After 1763 British wanted colonists to take on financial




burden
Change in policy reinforced sense of American identity
American experience caused colonists to question ways of the
Old World, colonists felt fundamentally different from British
Americans had grown accustomed to running own affairs,
shock when British try to crack down
Two ideas emerged during colonial experiencerepublicanism, ideas of Whigs
I. Deep Roots of Revolution
Republicanism
 Society where citizens
subordinate selfish interests
to common good
 Stability of government
depended on authority of
“good” government
 Opposed to authoritarian
institutions (monarchy,
aristocracy)
Whig Political Thought
 Threat to liberty by monarch
 Warned citizens to be on
guard against corruption
 People should be
represented by elected
officials
II. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances
 British authorities embraced policy of




mercantilism (countries wealth measured by gold
and silver, needed to export more than import)
Colonists felt if handcuffed American trade
Colonies provided raw materials, acted a market for
finished products
Enumerated goods, certain products could only
be shipped to England
To the British the Americans were tenants, not built
for economic self sufficiency or self government
II. Merits and Menace of Mercantilism
Merits of Mercantilism
British tried to regulate colonial trade (Navigation Acts 1650)
 Before 1763 Navigation Laws not a burden, lack of






enforcement called “salutary neglect”
Tobacco planters had a monopoly in Britain
Americans had some form self-government.
British mightiest army in the world, colonists didn’t have to
pay for it.
Repressive laws weren’t enforced much, average American
benefited much more than the average Englishman.
Mistakes that occurred didn’t occur out of malice, at least until
revolution.
France and Spain embraced mercantilism, enforced it heavily.
II. Merits and Menace of Mercantilism
Menace of Mercantilism
 After enforcement of mercantilist policies fuse of
revolution was lit
 Stifled economic initiative
 Dependent on British agents and creditors
 State of perpetual economic adolescence
 The South, which produced crops that weren’t grown
in England, was preferred over the North
 Colonists felt British were taking advantage of them
III. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances
Currency shortage in colonies
 Regularly bought more than they sold to Britain, trade with West Indies
drained cash
 Colonies needed hard currency
 Parliament prohibited colonies to print money, they did anyway
 Colonists saw interests being sacrificed for British commercial interests
 British also could nullify any colonial legislation (did not happen often)
 Principle weighed more heavily than practice
IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar
 Half of British debt came from Seven Years




War, wanted colonists to pay for own
defense
Britain began to redefine relationship with
colonies
1763- Prime Minister George Greenville
began to enforce Navigation Acts
1764- Parliament passed Sugar Act- duty
on imported sugar
1765- Quartering Act, required certain
colonies to provide food and lodging troops
IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar
 1765 worst of all the Stamp Act
 Mandated the use of stamps, certifying payment of
tax.
 Required on bills of sale for about 50 trade items and
on certain types of commercial and legal documents.
 Both the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act offenders tried
in the admiralty courts, where defenders were
guilty until proven innocent
 Greenville felt taxes were justified, British paid much
heavier tax
IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar
 Colonists angry at fiscal aggression
 Colonial assemblies refused to provide






supplies for troops
Felt they were unfairly taxed for unnecessary
army, lashed out against the stamp tax.
Americans formed the battle cry, “No taxation
without representation!”
Angered, to the principle of the matter at
hand.
Americans denied the right of Parliament to
tax Americans, since none were in Parliament.
Idea of “virtual representation,” every
Parliament member represented all British
subjects (so Americans were represented).
Americans rejected “virtual representation”,
began to consider political independence
V. Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act
 1765- Stamp Act Congress drew up statement of
rights and grievances, asked king and Parliament to
repeal tax
 Congress made colonies feel unified against common
cause
 Colonists began to boycott imported British goods,
more effective than congress
 Ordinary people began to participate in colonial
protests, opportunity for women “spinning bees”
V. Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act
 Sons and Daughters of Liberty took the





law into their own hands
Punished people who purchased goods,
stormed the houses of important officials
Machinery to collect tax broke down, no
officials to collect taxes
Hit England hard (25% of exports
purchased by colonies)
Parliament confused, Britons had to pay
much heavier taxes
1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act,
passed the Declaratory Act, defined
British had unqualified sovereignty over the
colonies
VII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre
 Americans in rebellious mood after





victory over Stamp Act
1767 Charles “Champagne Charley”
Townshend persuaded Parliament to
pass the Townshend Acts
Revenue to pay salaries of royal
officials in America
Taxes on lead, paper, paint, and tea,
later repealed, except tea.
1767- New York’s legislature
suspended for failure to comply with
the Quartering Act.
Tea became smuggled, to enforce the
law, Brits had to send troops to
America
VII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre
 March 5, 1770, a crowd of about 60
townspeople in Boston were harassing
some ten Redcoats.
 One fellow got hit in the head, another
got hit by a club.
 Without orders but heavily provoked,
the troops opened fire, wounding or
killing eleven “innocent” citizens,
including Crispus Attucks, a black
former-slave and the “leader” of the
mob in the Boston Massacre. Attucks
became a symbol of freedom (from
slave, to freeman, to martyr who stood
up to Britain for liberty).
 Only two Redcoats were prosecuted,
represented by John Adams
VIII. The Seditious Committees of Correspondence
 1770- King George III good person, but a poor ruler who
surrounded himself with “yes men”, like Lord North.
 Townshend Taxes repealed, except for the tea tax, kept alive
idea of parliamentary taxation
 1772- Resistance kept alive through Committees of
Correspondence, organized by Samuel Adams
 1773- Intercolonial committees established, exchanged
letters, exchanged ideas and information, kept alive
opposition across all colonies
IX. Tea Brewing in Boston
1773- British East India Company, overburdened
with unsold tea, was facing bankruptcy.
 The British decided to sell it to the Americans,
 Seen as an attempt to trick the Americans with the
bait of cheaper tea to pay tax.
 December 16, 1773, some Whites, led by patriot
Samuel Adams, disguised themselves as Indians,
opened 342 chests and dumped the tea
into the ocean in this “Boston Tea Party.”
 People in Annapolis did the same and burnt the
ships to water level.
 Reaction was varied, from approval to outrage to
disapproval.

o British felt they had no alternative
but to whip colonists into shape
X. Parliament Passes the Intolerable Acts
1774- Parliament passed a series of repressive acts to punish the colonies, namely
Massachusetts.
 Called the Intolerable Acts by Americans.
 The Boston Port Act closed the harbor in Boston.
 Self-government limited by forbidding town hall meetings without approval.
 The charter to Massachusetts was revoked

The Quebec Act
 Intended by British to administer conquered territory
 Guaranteed Catholicism to the French-Canadians, retain their old customs, extended
the old boundaries of Quebec all the way to the Ohio River (areas off limits by
Proclamation of 1763)
 Americans saw their territory threatened, aroused anti-Catholics, lack of
representative assemblies or trial by jury seen as a dangerous precedent, land
speculators see huge area taken away

XI. Bloodshed
Philadelphia 1774- First Continental
Congress met to discuss problems.
 Not wanting independence yet, came up with
a list of grievances, ignored in Parliament.
 12 of 13 colonies met, only Georgia didn’t
have a representative there.
 Came up with a Declaration of Rights.
 Meet again in 1775 (the next year) if nothing
happened.
 The “Shot Heard ‘Round the World”
 April 1775, the British commander in
Boston sent troops to nearby Lexington and
Concord, seize supplies, capture Sam Adams
and John Hancock.
 Minutemen, after having eight of their own
killed at Lexington,
fought back at Concord, British retreat to
Boston

XII. Imperial Strength and Weakness
 Britain had the heavy advantage:
 7.5 million people to America’s 2 million
 superior naval power
 great wealth, could hire mercenaries (German Hessians)
 Little popular support in Britain
 Whigs wanted American victory, feared George III arbitrary rule
 Generals poor, soldiers well trained
 Provisions scarce
 Fighting far from home
 American geography, lack of population centers gave Americans time,
British fits
XII. American Pluses and Minuses
 Advantages
 Great leaders -George Washington (giant general), and Ben Franklin





(smooth diplomat).
French aid (indirect and secretly), provided the Americans with guns,
supplies, gunpowder, etc…
Marquis de Lafayette a great asset.
Fighting in a defensive manner, and they were self-sustaining.
They were better marksmen. A competent American rifleman could hit
a man’s head at 200 yards.
Americans enjoyed the moral advantage in fighting for a just
cause
XII. American Pluses and Minuses
Disadvantages
 Lacking in unity, though:
1. Colonies resented the Continental Congress’ attempt at
exercising power
2. Sectional jealousy over the appointment of military
leaders
 Americans had little money. Inflation also hit families of
soldiers hard, and made many people poor.
 Colonial money worthless, inflation of prices for basic
goods
 Americans had nothing of a navy.
XIII. A Thin Line of Heroes







American army was desperately in need of clothing, wool, wagons to ship food, and other
supplies.
Many soldiers had also only received rudimentary training.
German Baron von Steuben, who spoke no English, whipped the soldiers into shape
African Americans fought in the beginning, many colonies barred them from service.
 By war’s end, more than 5,000 blacks had enlisted in the American armed forces.
 African-Americans served on the British side.
 1775, Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, issued
a proclamation declaring freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who
joined the British Army.
 End of war more than 1,400 Blacks were evacuated to Nova Scotia, Jamaica, and
England.
Many people also sold items to the British, because they paid in gold.
Many people just didn’t care about the revolution, raising a large number of troops was
difficult
Select few threw themselves into the cause with passion
America Secedes from the Empire
1775-1783
I. Congress Drafts George Washington
 May 1775 all colonies meet 2nd




Continental Congress
No well defined sentiment for
independence
Adopted measures to raise money for
army and navy, sent list of grievances
to George III
Most important action was selecting
George Washington as military
commander (moral force, great
military mind)
Selection largely political , from VA,
most revolutionaries from New
England area
Military Strategies
The Americans
Attrition [the Brits had
a long supply line].
Guerilla tactics [fight
an insurgent war 
you don’t have to win a
battle, just wear the
British down]
Make an alliance with
one of Britain’s
enemies.
The British
Break the colonies in
half by getting between
the No. & the So.
Blockade the ports to
prevent the flow of
goods and supplies
from an ally.
“Divide and Conquer”
 use the Loyalists.
II. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings, Abortive
Conquest of Canada
 Americans fighting war, but not declaring independence for 15




month period ( April 1775- July 1776)
1775 Americans capture Ft. Ticonderoga, get gunpowder and
cannons
June 1775 Bunker Hill American hold off British attack until
gunpowder runs out
August 1775 King George formally proclaims colonies were
in rebellion, begins to hire German (Hessian) troops,
Americans were guilty of treason
Fall 1775 British capture Falmouth, Maine, Americans plan
attack on Canada, they are not successful
III. Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense
 1776- Thomas Paine published
the pamphlet Common
Sense, urged colonials to stop
war of inconsistency, stop
pretending loyalty, and just
fight.
 Nowhere in the universe did a
smaller body control a larger
one, it was unnatural for tiny
Britain to control gigantic
America.
 He called King George III “the
Royal Brute of Great Britain.”
V. Paine and the Idea of Republicanism
 Idea that there should be a “republic” where representative
senators, governors, and judges should have their power
from the consent of the people (POWER FLOWS FROM
PEOPLE TO THE GOV’T)
 Ideas with Biblical imagery, familiar to common folk.
 Rejecting monarchy and empire and embrace an
independent republic fell on receptive ears in America,
ideas already existed.
 The New Englanders already practiced this type of
government in their town meetings.
 Some patriots, favored a republic ruled by a “natural
aristocracy” (John Adams), thought too much liberty would
destroy social order (runaway republicanism)
VI. Jefferson’s “Explanation” of Independence
2nd Continental Congress gradually moved toward a clean break with Britain.
 June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee urged for complete independence, adopted on July 2,
1776.
 Congress appointed Thomas Jefferson to write Declaration of Independence.
 Contained a list of grievances against King George III explaining why the colonies had
the
right to revolt.
 His “explanation” of independence also upheld the “natural rights” of humankind (life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness).
 Congress approved it on July 2nd, but because of editing and final approval, it was not
completely approved until July 4th, 1776.

VII. Patriots and Loyalists
 War within a war, not all colonials were united.
 Patriots, who supported rebellion and were called “Whigs.”
 Loyalists, who supported the king and who often went to
battle against fellow Americans, also called “Tories.”
 Moderates in the middle and those who didn’t care either
way. These people were constantly being asked to join one side
or another.
 British proved that they could only control Tory areas, because
when Redcoats packed up and left other areas, the rebels
would regain control
 Patriots good at political reeducation, agents of revolutionary
ideas
VII. Patriots and Loyalists
 Typical Loyalist (Tory)
 Generally conservatives,
educated, older, war divided
families
 Loyalists were most numerous
where the Anglican Church was
strongest (the South).
 Loyalists were less numerous
in New England, where
Presbyterianism and
Congregationalism flourished.
 Loyalists were more numerous
in the aristocratic areas such as
Charleston, SC
VII. Patriots and Loyalists
 Typical Patriot
 The Patriots were generally the younger




generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick
Henry.
From places where self-government was
strong and mercantilism weak
The Patriot militias constantly harassed
small British detachments.
Patriots typically didn’t belong to the
Anglican Church (Church of England) but
were Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist,
or Methodist.
There were also “profiteers” who sold to
the highest bidder, selling to the British
and ignoring starving, freezing soldiers (i.e.
George Washington at Valley Forge).
VIII. The Loyalist Exodus




After the Declaration of
Independence, Loyalists and
Patriots sharply divided
Patriots often confiscated
Loyalist property to resell it (an
easy way to raise money)
Loyalists attacked and
harassed, no reign of terror like
France or Russia
50,000 Loyalists served the
British in one way or another
(fighting, spying, etc…), British
did not make enough use of
them
Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776]
Bunker Hill (June, 1775)
The British suffered over 40% casualties.
Phase II:
NY & PA
[1777-1778]
Washington Crossing the Delaware
Saratoga:
“Turning Point”
of the War?
Britain’s Southern Strategy








Britain thought that there were more Loyalists
in the South.
Southerners not as vocal in support of
Revolution, thought it might inspire slave
revolt
Southern resources more valuable/worth
preserving.
British win small victories, but cannot pacify
the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in
Vietnam!]
Georgia 1778-1779, Charleston, SC 1780
Carolinas, Patriots bitterly fought their Loyalist
neighbors.
1781, rebel victories King’s Mountain,
Cowpens in NC
Quaker- reared Gen. Nathanael Greene
strategy of delay.
 Retreating and losing battles but winning
campaigns, clear the British out of most of
Georgia and South Carolina.
IX. REVOLUTION IN DIPLOMACY?
 France wanted revenge on Britain, secretly supplied the
Americans throughout much of the war.
 Continental Congress sent delegates to France; delegates were
guided by a “Model Treaty” sought no political/military
connections, only commercial ones.
 Ben Franklin, American diplomat to France, exemplifed a raw
new America
 After Saratoga (1777), the British offered the Americans a
measure that gave them home rule—everything they wanted
except independence.
IX. REVOLUTION IN DIPLOMACY?
 After Saratoga, France enters war against Britain.
 If Britain regained control, might then try to capture the




French West Indies for compensation
Did not want to risk a stronger Britain with its reunited
colonies.
France, 1778, offered a treaty of alliance, offering America
everything that Britain had offered, plus recognition of
independence.
The Americans accepted agreement with caution, France was
pro-Catholic, but since the Americans needed help, they’d take
it.
Official recognition of American independence by European
power
X. The Colonial War Becomes a Wider War
 1779, Spain and Holland entered war against Britain.
 1780, Catherine the Great of Russia organized the Armed
Neutrality (she later called it the Armed Nullity), lined up all
of Europe’s neutrals in passive hostility against England.
 America, though it kept the war going until 1778, didn’t win
until France, Spain, and Holland joined in and Britain
couldn’t handle them all.
 Britain, decided to evacuate Philadelphia, concentrate forces
in New York, Washington bottled up British in NY
XI. Blow and Counterblow
 1780 –French reinforcements arrive in Rhode
Island.
 Feeling unappreciated and lured by British gold,
Gen. Benedict Arnold turned traitor by plotting with
the British to sell out West Point.
 When the plot was discovered, he fled with the
British.
XII. The Land and Sea Frontier
 1777 -the “bloody year” on the frontier
 Most Indians supported Britain, believed they would







stop American expansion into the West
Mohawk chief Joseph Brant, recently converted to
Anglicanism, and his men attacked the backcountry of
Pennsylvania, New York defeated 1779.
1784, pro-British Iroquois signed the Treaty of Fort
Stanwix, the first treaty between the U.S. and an Indian
nation.
Indians ceded most of their land.
Pioneers continued to move west
1778-1779 George Rogers Clark, captured British
forts
American navy never really hurt the British warships,
but it did destroy British merchant shipping, carried
the war into the waters around the British Isles.
Privateers captured ships forced them to sail in
convoys.
XIII. Yorktown and the Final Curtain
1780-1781 inflation continued to
soar, government was virtually
bankrupt, could not repay debts
In the Chesapeake Cornwallis was
blundering into a trap






Retreating to Chesapeake Bay
Cornwallis instead was trapped by
Washington’s army, Rochambeau’s
French army, and the French navy
King George wanted to continue
the war, fighting continued for
about a year after Yorktown
mostly in the south
Patriot/ Loyalist fighting
Washington had to keep army
happy, unified during this time
XIV. Peace at Paris






Brits were weary of the war, suffered heavily
Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay met in Paris for a peace deal.
Jay suspected France would try to keep the U.S. cooped up east of the Alleghenies and
keep America weak.
Jay, thinking that France would betray American ambition to Spain, secretly made
separate overtures to London (against instructions from Congress)
Came to terms quickly with the British, who were eager to entice one of their enemies
from the alliance.
The Treaty of Paris of 1783
 Britain formally recognized U.S. granted generous boundaries, Mississippi River to the
west, Great Lakes on the north, Spanish Florida on the South.
 Yankees retained a share in fisheries off Newfoundland.
 Americans couldn’t persecute Loyalists, though, and Congress could only recommend
legislature that would return or pay for confiscated Loyalist land.
 Did not keep obligation to Loyalists
XV. A New Nation Legitimized
 Britain ceded so much land
because it was trying to
entice America from its
French alliance.
 American-friendly Whigs
were in control of the
Parliament
 France approved the treaty,
though with cautious eyes.
 America came out the big
winner
Loyalists





Loyalists were conservative, well-educated, and thought that a complete break with
Britain would invite anarchy.
They felt that America couldn’t win against the most powerful nation in the
world.
Many Britons had settled in America after the Seven Years’ War, and they had reason to
support their home country.
Thousands of African-Americans joined the British ranks for hope of freedom from
bondage.
 Many Black Loyalists won their freedom from Britain.
 Others suffered betrayal, such as when Cornwallis abandoned over
4,000 former slaves in Virginia and when many Black Loyalists boarded
ships expecting to embark for freedom but instead found themselves sold
back into slavery.
 Some Black exiles settled in Britain, but weren’t really easily accepted.
Most Loyalists remained in America, where they faced special
burdens and struggled to re-establish themselves in a society that
viewed them as traitors.
Download
Related flashcards

Ethnic groups in Sudan

32 cards

Ethnic groups in Syria

18 cards

Ethnic groups in Syria

19 cards

S.H.I.E.L.D. agents

75 cards

Ethnic groups in Sudan

32 cards

Create Flashcards