The American Revolution Unit Two The Duel for North America 1608-1773 I. France Finds a Foothold in Canada Latecomer to colonizing New World Louis XIV took interest in colonial expansion First successful colony Quebec 1609 Samuel de Champlain explore, solider, leader early French colonial efforts Colony known as New France Problems with Iroquois hampered French conquest of Ohio River Valley French colonies autocratic, no representative assemblies, no right to fair trail Favored Caribbean colonies because of sugar trade II. New France Fans Out Most valuable resource in New France- beaver fur Fur trappers (voyageurs) trapped beaver, recruited Indians into fur business Traveled deep into wilderness, created ecological disaster by eliminating most of beaver population French Missionaries attempted to “Christianize” Indians Voyageurs, missionaries vital role as explorers, geographers II. New France Fans Out French try to block British and Spanish expansion Detroit (1701), keep out British LaSalle claims Mississippi River Valley for France (Louisiana) French fortify posts along river to keep out Spanish, protect beaver trade Establish New Orleans (1718) to keep fur and grain flowing to mother country, keep MS River from Spanish French, Spanish and English Settlers Each country had different motives and settlement patterns French- friendly relations with Indians (comparatively), tried to convert Natives to Christianity, came in small numbers, extractive economic activity (fur trade), explored deep into continent, Catholic, had economic motives Spanish- came to conquer (conquistador), looked for and found precious minerals, tried to convert Indians, blended their culture with Native culture, explored deep into continent to look for wealth, Catholic English- came in larger groups (especially NE), settled and “improved” land, more religiously tolerant, wiped out Indian culture, established their own “footprint”, did not explore deep into continent, mostly Protestant III. Clash of Empires Four wars in the 17th and 18th century for control of Americas King Williams War 1688-1697, Queen Anne’s War 1701-1713 Did not involve large numbers of troops, America not seen as worthy of commitment from European powers Usually involved French and Indian allies attacking English colonial settlements Deerfield, MA; Schenectady, NY scenes of most violence III. Clash of Empires Treaty of Utrecht 1713 British defeat French England controlled most of Canada except land along St. Lawrence River End of war begins period of “salutary neglect” War of Jenkins Ear 1739 between British and Spanish, mostly in Caribbean, some fighting in GA King Georges War 1744-1748 Colonists and British capture fort at entrance to St. Lawrence River Peace treaty 1748 gives it back to France, enrages colonists As a result of wars British military more involved in colonies IV. George Washington Inaugurates War with France Ohio River Valley becomes source of problems between British, French Key to continent for French, linked colonial holdings Region key to economic security for French Land hungry British colonists attempt to secure “rights” to region French building forts to secure region IV. George Washington Inaugurates War with France 1754 Governor of VA sends group of militia to secure claims, led by George Washington Encounter small group of French soldiers near Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) French initially defeated, return with reinforcements Washington forced to surrender 1755 British authorities uproot 4,000 French from Nova Scotia, deportees end up in LA (Cajuns) Beginning of French and Indian War V. Global War and Colonial Disunity War began in America, others began in Europe England and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia Bloodiest battles in Germany “America conquered in Germany” British statesman William Pitt French and Indian War beginning of colonial unity Before certain colonies had enjoyed advantage of remoteness, now needed to come together to fight French V. Global War and Colonial Disunity 1754 Colonists meet Albany, NY Plan to keep Indians in check, achieve colonial unity, common defense against French 7 of 13 colonies show up Ben Franklin “Join or Die” slogan, presents Albany Plan for colonial home rule (rejected by British), colonists could not agree on details First sign of colonial unity VI. Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath Indians allied with French, worried about British settlement First part of war went badly for British Slow moving, heavy artillery Poorly supplied, poorly disciplined colonial militia Smaller French force defeated them at Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburg) Opened up frontier from NC to PA to Indian attack Losses began to pile up for British VII. Pitt’s Palms of Victory 1757- William Pitt becomes leader of London gov’t Stopped concentrating on West Indies, focused on Canada Understood colonial concerns Offered colonists a compromise: col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. Remove oppressive gov’t. officials Result was improved colonial morale by 1758 1758 Louisbourg defeated 32 year old James Wolfe commanded troops that attacked and defeated Quebec (1759) 1760 Montreal falls, last French stronghold 1763 Treaty of Paris French give up all claims in NA Spain received all land west of MS River and New Orleans British emerged as dominant regional power, worlds most powerful navy VIII. Restless Colonials Effects of the war on the colonies Colonists came out of war confident, shattered myth of British invincibility Barriers of disunity began to dissolve Colonists found unity in language, tradition, ideals Friction between colonials and British officers Colonials felt they deserved credit for war effort British said they did not support cause Smuggling by colonists helped FR and SP British position – colonists demand rights, without paying dues, war increased British debt IX. War’s Fateful Aftermath With Fr gone colonists could roam freely across Appalachian Mts. Spanish, Indian threat reduced Indians could not play Br and Fr against each other 1763 Ottawa chief Pontiac led attacks on settlers British retaliated (gave Indians smallpox infected blankets) British saw need to stabilize frontier now that it was open to settlement IX. War’s Fateful Aftermath Proclamation of 1763 Prohibited settlement west of Appalachian Mts. Designed not to oppress colonists but to solve Indian problem Colonists viewed it as form of oppression Settlers went west anyway in defiance of royal authority The Road to Revolution 1763-1775 I. Deep Roots of Revolution Victory in Seven Years War costly After 1763 British wanted colonists to take on financial burden Change in policy reinforced sense of American identity American experience caused colonists to question ways of the Old World, colonists felt fundamentally different from British Americans had grown accustomed to running own affairs, shock when British try to crack down Two ideas emerged during colonial experiencerepublicanism, ideas of Whigs I. Deep Roots of Revolution Republicanism Society where citizens subordinate selfish interests to common good Stability of government depended on authority of “good” government Opposed to authoritarian institutions (monarchy, aristocracy) Whig Political Thought Threat to liberty by monarch Warned citizens to be on guard against corruption People should be represented by elected officials II. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances British authorities embraced policy of mercantilism (countries wealth measured by gold and silver, needed to export more than import) Colonists felt if handcuffed American trade Colonies provided raw materials, acted a market for finished products Enumerated goods, certain products could only be shipped to England To the British the Americans were tenants, not built for economic self sufficiency or self government II. Merits and Menace of Mercantilism Merits of Mercantilism British tried to regulate colonial trade (Navigation Acts 1650) Before 1763 Navigation Laws not a burden, lack of enforcement called “salutary neglect” Tobacco planters had a monopoly in Britain Americans had some form self-government. British mightiest army in the world, colonists didn’t have to pay for it. Repressive laws weren’t enforced much, average American benefited much more than the average Englishman. Mistakes that occurred didn’t occur out of malice, at least until revolution. France and Spain embraced mercantilism, enforced it heavily. II. Merits and Menace of Mercantilism Menace of Mercantilism After enforcement of mercantilist policies fuse of revolution was lit Stifled economic initiative Dependent on British agents and creditors State of perpetual economic adolescence The South, which produced crops that weren’t grown in England, was preferred over the North Colonists felt British were taking advantage of them III. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances Currency shortage in colonies Regularly bought more than they sold to Britain, trade with West Indies drained cash Colonies needed hard currency Parliament prohibited colonies to print money, they did anyway Colonists saw interests being sacrificed for British commercial interests British also could nullify any colonial legislation (did not happen often) Principle weighed more heavily than practice IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar Half of British debt came from Seven Years War, wanted colonists to pay for own defense Britain began to redefine relationship with colonies 1763- Prime Minister George Greenville began to enforce Navigation Acts 1764- Parliament passed Sugar Act- duty on imported sugar 1765- Quartering Act, required certain colonies to provide food and lodging troops IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar 1765 worst of all the Stamp Act Mandated the use of stamps, certifying payment of tax. Required on bills of sale for about 50 trade items and on certain types of commercial and legal documents. Both the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act offenders tried in the admiralty courts, where defenders were guilty until proven innocent Greenville felt taxes were justified, British paid much heavier tax IV. The Stamp Tax Uproar Colonists angry at fiscal aggression Colonial assemblies refused to provide supplies for troops Felt they were unfairly taxed for unnecessary army, lashed out against the stamp tax. Americans formed the battle cry, “No taxation without representation!” Angered, to the principle of the matter at hand. Americans denied the right of Parliament to tax Americans, since none were in Parliament. Idea of “virtual representation,” every Parliament member represented all British subjects (so Americans were represented). Americans rejected “virtual representation”, began to consider political independence V. Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act 1765- Stamp Act Congress drew up statement of rights and grievances, asked king and Parliament to repeal tax Congress made colonies feel unified against common cause Colonists began to boycott imported British goods, more effective than congress Ordinary people began to participate in colonial protests, opportunity for women “spinning bees” V. Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act Sons and Daughters of Liberty took the law into their own hands Punished people who purchased goods, stormed the houses of important officials Machinery to collect tax broke down, no officials to collect taxes Hit England hard (25% of exports purchased by colonies) Parliament confused, Britons had to pay much heavier taxes 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, passed the Declaratory Act, defined British had unqualified sovereignty over the colonies VII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre Americans in rebellious mood after victory over Stamp Act 1767 Charles “Champagne Charley” Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts Revenue to pay salaries of royal officials in America Taxes on lead, paper, paint, and tea, later repealed, except tea. 1767- New York’s legislature suspended for failure to comply with the Quartering Act. Tea became smuggled, to enforce the law, Brits had to send troops to America VII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre March 5, 1770, a crowd of about 60 townspeople in Boston were harassing some ten Redcoats. One fellow got hit in the head, another got hit by a club. Without orders but heavily provoked, the troops opened fire, wounding or killing eleven “innocent” citizens, including Crispus Attucks, a black former-slave and the “leader” of the mob in the Boston Massacre. Attucks became a symbol of freedom (from slave, to freeman, to martyr who stood up to Britain for liberty). Only two Redcoats were prosecuted, represented by John Adams VIII. The Seditious Committees of Correspondence 1770- King George III good person, but a poor ruler who surrounded himself with “yes men”, like Lord North. Townshend Taxes repealed, except for the tea tax, kept alive idea of parliamentary taxation 1772- Resistance kept alive through Committees of Correspondence, organized by Samuel Adams 1773- Intercolonial committees established, exchanged letters, exchanged ideas and information, kept alive opposition across all colonies IX. Tea Brewing in Boston 1773- British East India Company, overburdened with unsold tea, was facing bankruptcy. The British decided to sell it to the Americans, Seen as an attempt to trick the Americans with the bait of cheaper tea to pay tax. December 16, 1773, some Whites, led by patriot Samuel Adams, disguised themselves as Indians, opened 342 chests and dumped the tea into the ocean in this “Boston Tea Party.” People in Annapolis did the same and burnt the ships to water level. Reaction was varied, from approval to outrage to disapproval. o British felt they had no alternative but to whip colonists into shape X. Parliament Passes the Intolerable Acts 1774- Parliament passed a series of repressive acts to punish the colonies, namely Massachusetts. Called the Intolerable Acts by Americans. The Boston Port Act closed the harbor in Boston. Self-government limited by forbidding town hall meetings without approval. The charter to Massachusetts was revoked The Quebec Act Intended by British to administer conquered territory Guaranteed Catholicism to the French-Canadians, retain their old customs, extended the old boundaries of Quebec all the way to the Ohio River (areas off limits by Proclamation of 1763) Americans saw their territory threatened, aroused anti-Catholics, lack of representative assemblies or trial by jury seen as a dangerous precedent, land speculators see huge area taken away XI. Bloodshed Philadelphia 1774- First Continental Congress met to discuss problems. Not wanting independence yet, came up with a list of grievances, ignored in Parliament. 12 of 13 colonies met, only Georgia didn’t have a representative there. Came up with a Declaration of Rights. Meet again in 1775 (the next year) if nothing happened. The “Shot Heard ‘Round the World” April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent troops to nearby Lexington and Concord, seize supplies, capture Sam Adams and John Hancock. Minutemen, after having eight of their own killed at Lexington, fought back at Concord, British retreat to Boston XII. Imperial Strength and Weakness Britain had the heavy advantage: 7.5 million people to America’s 2 million superior naval power great wealth, could hire mercenaries (German Hessians) Little popular support in Britain Whigs wanted American victory, feared George III arbitrary rule Generals poor, soldiers well trained Provisions scarce Fighting far from home American geography, lack of population centers gave Americans time, British fits XII. American Pluses and Minuses Advantages Great leaders -George Washington (giant general), and Ben Franklin (smooth diplomat). French aid (indirect and secretly), provided the Americans with guns, supplies, gunpowder, etc… Marquis de Lafayette a great asset. Fighting in a defensive manner, and they were self-sustaining. They were better marksmen. A competent American rifleman could hit a man’s head at 200 yards. Americans enjoyed the moral advantage in fighting for a just cause XII. American Pluses and Minuses Disadvantages Lacking in unity, though: 1. Colonies resented the Continental Congress’ attempt at exercising power 2. Sectional jealousy over the appointment of military leaders Americans had little money. Inflation also hit families of soldiers hard, and made many people poor. Colonial money worthless, inflation of prices for basic goods Americans had nothing of a navy. XIII. A Thin Line of Heroes American army was desperately in need of clothing, wool, wagons to ship food, and other supplies. Many soldiers had also only received rudimentary training. German Baron von Steuben, who spoke no English, whipped the soldiers into shape African Americans fought in the beginning, many colonies barred them from service. By war’s end, more than 5,000 blacks had enlisted in the American armed forces. African-Americans served on the British side. 1775, Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation declaring freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British Army. End of war more than 1,400 Blacks were evacuated to Nova Scotia, Jamaica, and England. Many people also sold items to the British, because they paid in gold. Many people just didn’t care about the revolution, raising a large number of troops was difficult Select few threw themselves into the cause with passion America Secedes from the Empire 1775-1783 I. Congress Drafts George Washington May 1775 all colonies meet 2nd Continental Congress No well defined sentiment for independence Adopted measures to raise money for army and navy, sent list of grievances to George III Most important action was selecting George Washington as military commander (moral force, great military mind) Selection largely political , from VA, most revolutionaries from New England area Military Strategies The Americans Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. The British Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists. II. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings, Abortive Conquest of Canada Americans fighting war, but not declaring independence for 15 month period ( April 1775- July 1776) 1775 Americans capture Ft. Ticonderoga, get gunpowder and cannons June 1775 Bunker Hill American hold off British attack until gunpowder runs out August 1775 King George formally proclaims colonies were in rebellion, begins to hire German (Hessian) troops, Americans were guilty of treason Fall 1775 British capture Falmouth, Maine, Americans plan attack on Canada, they are not successful III. Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense 1776- Thomas Paine published the pamphlet Common Sense, urged colonials to stop war of inconsistency, stop pretending loyalty, and just fight. Nowhere in the universe did a smaller body control a larger one, it was unnatural for tiny Britain to control gigantic America. He called King George III “the Royal Brute of Great Britain.” V. Paine and the Idea of Republicanism Idea that there should be a “republic” where representative senators, governors, and judges should have their power from the consent of the people (POWER FLOWS FROM PEOPLE TO THE GOV’T) Ideas with Biblical imagery, familiar to common folk. Rejecting monarchy and empire and embrace an independent republic fell on receptive ears in America, ideas already existed. The New Englanders already practiced this type of government in their town meetings. Some patriots, favored a republic ruled by a “natural aristocracy” (John Adams), thought too much liberty would destroy social order (runaway republicanism) VI. Jefferson’s “Explanation” of Independence 2nd Continental Congress gradually moved toward a clean break with Britain. June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee urged for complete independence, adopted on July 2, 1776. Congress appointed Thomas Jefferson to write Declaration of Independence. Contained a list of grievances against King George III explaining why the colonies had the right to revolt. His “explanation” of independence also upheld the “natural rights” of humankind (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness). Congress approved it on July 2nd, but because of editing and final approval, it was not completely approved until July 4th, 1776. VII. Patriots and Loyalists War within a war, not all colonials were united. Patriots, who supported rebellion and were called “Whigs.” Loyalists, who supported the king and who often went to battle against fellow Americans, also called “Tories.” Moderates in the middle and those who didn’t care either way. These people were constantly being asked to join one side or another. British proved that they could only control Tory areas, because when Redcoats packed up and left other areas, the rebels would regain control Patriots good at political reeducation, agents of revolutionary ideas VII. Patriots and Loyalists Typical Loyalist (Tory) Generally conservatives, educated, older, war divided families Loyalists were most numerous where the Anglican Church was strongest (the South). Loyalists were less numerous in New England, where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished. Loyalists were more numerous in the aristocratic areas such as Charleston, SC VII. Patriots and Loyalists Typical Patriot The Patriots were generally the younger generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry. From places where self-government was strong and mercantilism weak The Patriot militias constantly harassed small British detachments. Patriots typically didn’t belong to the Anglican Church (Church of England) but were Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, or Methodist. There were also “profiteers” who sold to the highest bidder, selling to the British and ignoring starving, freezing soldiers (i.e. George Washington at Valley Forge). VIII. The Loyalist Exodus After the Declaration of Independence, Loyalists and Patriots sharply divided Patriots often confiscated Loyalist property to resell it (an easy way to raise money) Loyalists attacked and harassed, no reign of terror like France or Russia 50,000 Loyalists served the British in one way or another (fighting, spying, etc…), British did not make enough use of them Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776] Bunker Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties. Phase II: NY & PA [1777-1778] Washington Crossing the Delaware Saratoga: “Turning Point” of the War? Britain’s Southern Strategy Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. Southerners not as vocal in support of Revolution, thought it might inspire slave revolt Southern resources more valuable/worth preserving. British win small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!] Georgia 1778-1779, Charleston, SC 1780 Carolinas, Patriots bitterly fought their Loyalist neighbors. 1781, rebel victories King’s Mountain, Cowpens in NC Quaker- reared Gen. Nathanael Greene strategy of delay. Retreating and losing battles but winning campaigns, clear the British out of most of Georgia and South Carolina. IX. REVOLUTION IN DIPLOMACY? France wanted revenge on Britain, secretly supplied the Americans throughout much of the war. Continental Congress sent delegates to France; delegates were guided by a “Model Treaty” sought no political/military connections, only commercial ones. Ben Franklin, American diplomat to France, exemplifed a raw new America After Saratoga (1777), the British offered the Americans a measure that gave them home rule—everything they wanted except independence. IX. REVOLUTION IN DIPLOMACY? After Saratoga, France enters war against Britain. If Britain regained control, might then try to capture the French West Indies for compensation Did not want to risk a stronger Britain with its reunited colonies. France, 1778, offered a treaty of alliance, offering America everything that Britain had offered, plus recognition of independence. The Americans accepted agreement with caution, France was pro-Catholic, but since the Americans needed help, they’d take it. Official recognition of American independence by European power X. The Colonial War Becomes a Wider War 1779, Spain and Holland entered war against Britain. 1780, Catherine the Great of Russia organized the Armed Neutrality (she later called it the Armed Nullity), lined up all of Europe’s neutrals in passive hostility against England. America, though it kept the war going until 1778, didn’t win until France, Spain, and Holland joined in and Britain couldn’t handle them all. Britain, decided to evacuate Philadelphia, concentrate forces in New York, Washington bottled up British in NY XI. Blow and Counterblow 1780 –French reinforcements arrive in Rhode Island. Feeling unappreciated and lured by British gold, Gen. Benedict Arnold turned traitor by plotting with the British to sell out West Point. When the plot was discovered, he fled with the British. XII. The Land and Sea Frontier 1777 -the “bloody year” on the frontier Most Indians supported Britain, believed they would stop American expansion into the West Mohawk chief Joseph Brant, recently converted to Anglicanism, and his men attacked the backcountry of Pennsylvania, New York defeated 1779. 1784, pro-British Iroquois signed the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the first treaty between the U.S. and an Indian nation. Indians ceded most of their land. Pioneers continued to move west 1778-1779 George Rogers Clark, captured British forts American navy never really hurt the British warships, but it did destroy British merchant shipping, carried the war into the waters around the British Isles. Privateers captured ships forced them to sail in convoys. XIII. Yorktown and the Final Curtain 1780-1781 inflation continued to soar, government was virtually bankrupt, could not repay debts In the Chesapeake Cornwallis was blundering into a trap Retreating to Chesapeake Bay Cornwallis instead was trapped by Washington’s army, Rochambeau’s French army, and the French navy King George wanted to continue the war, fighting continued for about a year after Yorktown mostly in the south Patriot/ Loyalist fighting Washington had to keep army happy, unified during this time XIV. Peace at Paris Brits were weary of the war, suffered heavily Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay met in Paris for a peace deal. Jay suspected France would try to keep the U.S. cooped up east of the Alleghenies and keep America weak. Jay, thinking that France would betray American ambition to Spain, secretly made separate overtures to London (against instructions from Congress) Came to terms quickly with the British, who were eager to entice one of their enemies from the alliance. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 Britain formally recognized U.S. granted generous boundaries, Mississippi River to the west, Great Lakes on the north, Spanish Florida on the South. Yankees retained a share in fisheries off Newfoundland. Americans couldn’t persecute Loyalists, though, and Congress could only recommend legislature that would return or pay for confiscated Loyalist land. Did not keep obligation to Loyalists XV. A New Nation Legitimized Britain ceded so much land because it was trying to entice America from its French alliance. American-friendly Whigs were in control of the Parliament France approved the treaty, though with cautious eyes. America came out the big winner Loyalists Loyalists were conservative, well-educated, and thought that a complete break with Britain would invite anarchy. They felt that America couldn’t win against the most powerful nation in the world. Many Britons had settled in America after the Seven Years’ War, and they had reason to support their home country. Thousands of African-Americans joined the British ranks for hope of freedom from bondage. Many Black Loyalists won their freedom from Britain. Others suffered betrayal, such as when Cornwallis abandoned over 4,000 former slaves in Virginia and when many Black Loyalists boarded ships expecting to embark for freedom but instead found themselves sold back into slavery. Some Black exiles settled in Britain, but weren’t really easily accepted. Most Loyalists remained in America, where they faced special burdens and struggled to re-establish themselves in a society that viewed them as traitors.