Lecture Outlines Chapter 4 Environment: The Science behind the Stories 4th Edition Withgott/Brennan © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. This lecture will help you understand: • Species interactions • Feeding relationships, energy flow, trophic levels, and food webs • Keystone species • The process of succession • Potential impacts of invasive species • Restoration ecology • Terrestrial biomes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Case Study: black and white and spread all over • In 1988, Zebra mussels were accidentally introduced to Lake St. Clair - In discharged ballast water • By 2010, they had invaded 30 states - No natural predators, competitors, or parasites • They cause millions of dollars of damage to property each year © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Species interactions • Species interactions are the backbone of communities • Natural species interactions: - Competition = both species are harmed - Exploitative = one species benefits and the other is harmed - Predation, parasitism, and herbivory - Mutualism = both species benefit © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Competition • Competition = multiple organisms seek the same limited resources - Food, space, water, shelter, mates, sunlight • Intraspecific competition = between members of the same species - High population density = increased competition • Interspecific competition = between members of 2 or more species - Strongly affects community composition - Leads to competitive exclusion or species coexistence © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Results of interspecific competition • Competitive exclusion = one species completely excludes another species from using the resource - Zebra mussels displaced native mussels in the Great Lakes • Species coexistence = neither species fully excludes the other from resources, so both live side by side - This produces a stable point of equilibrium, with stable population sizes - Species minimize competition by using only a part of the available resource (niche) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Niche: an individual’s ecological role • Fundamental niche = the full niche of a species • Realized niche = the portion of the fundamental niche that is actually filled - Due to competition or other species’ interactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Resource partitioning • Resource partitioning = species use different resources - Or they use shared resources in different ways - Ex: one species is active at night, another in the day - Ex: one species eats small seeds, another eats large seeds © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Character displacement • Character displacement = competing species diverge in their physical characteristics - Due to the evolution of traits best suited to the resources they use - Results from resource partitioning • Birds that eat larger seeds evolve larger bills - Birds that eat smaller seeds evolve smaller bills Competition is reduced when two species become more different © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exploitation: predation • Exploitation = one member exploits another for its own gain (+/- interactions) - Predation, parasitism, herbivory • Predation = process by which individuals of one species (predators) capture, kill, and consume individuals of another species (prey) - Structures food webs - The number of predators and prey influences community composition © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Zebra mussel predation on phytoplankton • Zebra mussels eat phytoplankton and zooplankton - Both populations decrease in lakes with zebra mussels • Zebra mussels don’t eat cyanobacteria - Population increases in lakes with zebra mussels • Zebra mussels are becoming prey for some North American predators: - Diving ducks, muskrats, crayfish, flounder, sturgeon, eels, carp, and freshwater drum © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of predation on populations • Increased prey populations increase predators - Predators survive and reproduce • Increased predator populations decrease prey - Predators starve • Decreased predator populations increase prey populations © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Predation has evolutionary ramifications • Natural selection leads to evolution of adaptations that make predators better hunters • Individuals who are better at catching prey: - Live longer, healthier lives - Take better care of offspring • Prey face strong selection pressures: they are at risk of immediate death - Prey develop elaborate defenses against being eaten © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Defenses against being eaten © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exploitation: parasitism • Parasitism = a relationship in which one organism (parasite) depends on another (host) - For nourishment or some other benefit - The parasite harms, but doesn’t kill, the host • Some are free-living - Infrequent contact with their hosts - Ticks, sea lampreys • Some live within the host - Disease, tapeworms © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Parasites evolve in response to each other • Parasitoids = insects that parasitize other insects - Killing the host • Coevolution = hosts and parasites become locked in a duel of escalating adaptations - Has been called an evolutionary arms race - Each evolves new responses to the other - It may not be beneficial to the parasite to kill its host © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exploitation: herbivory • Herbivory = animals feed on the tissues of plants - Widely seen in insects • May not kill the plant - But affects its growth and survival • Defenses against herbivory include: - Chemicals: toxic or distasteful - Thorns, spines, or irritating hairs - Other animals: protect the plant © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mutualism • Two or more species benefit from their interactions • Symbiosis = mutualism in which the organisms live in close physical contact - Each partner provides a service the other needs (food, protection, housing, etc.) - Microbes within digestive tracts - Mycorrhizae: plant roots and fungi - Coral and algae (zooxanthellae) • Pollination = bees, bats, birds and others transfer pollen from one flower to another, fertilizing its eggs © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Pollination In exchange for the plant nectar, the animals pollinate plants, which allows them to reproduce © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Relationships with no effect on one member • Amensalism = a relationship in which one organism is harmed while the other is unaffected - Difficult to confirm, because usually one organism benefits from harming another - Allelopathy = certain plants release harmful chemicals - Or, is this a way to outcompete another for space? • Commensalism = a relationship in which one organism benefits, while the other remains unaffected © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecological communities • Community = an assemblage of populations of organisms living in the same place at the same time - Members interact with each other - Interactions determine the structure, function, and species composition of the community • Community ecologists are people interested in how: - Species coexist and relate to one another - Communities change, and why patterns exist © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy passes through trophic levels • One of the most important species interactions - Who eats whom? • Matter and energy move through the community • Trophic levels = rank in the feeding hierarchy - Producers (autotrophs) - Consumers - Detritivores and decomposers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Producers: the first trophic level • Producers, or autotrophs (“self-feeders”) = organisms capture solar energy for photosynthesis to produce sugars - Green plants - Cyanobacteria - Algae • Chemosynthetic bacteria use the geothermal energy in hot springs or deep-sea vents to produce their food © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Consumers: consume producers • Primary consumers = second trophic level - Organisms that consume producers - Herbivores consume plants - Deer, grasshoppers • Secondary consumers = third trophic level - Organisms that prey on primary consumers - Carnivores consume meat - Wolves, rodents © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Consumers occur at higher trophic levels • Tertiary Consumers = fourth trophic level - Predators at the highest trophic level - Consume secondary consumers - Are also carnivores - Hawks, owls • Omnivores = consumers that eat both plants and animals © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Detritivores and decomposers • Organisms that consume nonliving organic matter - Enrich soils and/or recycle nutrients found in dead organisms • Detritivores = scavenge waste products or dead bodies - Millipedes, soil insects • Decomposers = break down leaf litter and other nonliving material - Fungi, bacteria - Enhance topsoil and recycle nutrients © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy, biomass, and numbers decrease • Most energy organisms use is lost as waste heat through cellular respiration - Less and less energy is available in each successive trophic level - Each level contains only 10% of the energy of the trophic level below it • There are also far fewer organisms and less biomass (mass of living matter) at the higher trophic levels A human vegetarian’s ecological footprint is smaller than a meat-eater’s footprint © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Pyramids of energy, biomass, and numbers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Food webs show relationships and energy flow • Food chain = a series of feeding relationships • Food web = a visual map of feeding relationships and energy flow - Includes many different organisms at all various levels - Greatly simplified; leaves out most species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Some organisms play big roles • Community dynamics are complex - Species interactions differ in strength and over time • Keystone species = has a strong or wide-reaching impact - Far out of proportion to its abundance • Removal of a keystone species has substantial ripple effects - Alters the food chain © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Species can change communities • Trophic Cascade = predators at high trophic levels indirectly affect populations at low trophic levels - By keeping species at intermediate trophic levels in check - Extermination of wolves led to increased deer populations, which overgrazed vegetation and changed forest structure • Ecosystem engineers = physically modify the environment - Beaver dams, prairie dogs, ants, zebra mussels © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Communities respond to disturbances • Communities experience many types of disturbance - Removal of keystone species, spread of invasive species, natural disturbances - Human impacts cause major community changes • Resistance = community of organisms resists change and remains stable despite the disturbance • Resilience = a community changes in response to a disturbance, but later returns to its original state • A disturbed community may never return to its original state © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Primary succession • Succession = the predictable series of changes in a community - Following a disturbance • Primary succession = disturbance removes all vegetation and/or soil life - Glaciers, drying lakes, volcanic lava • Pioneer species = the first species to arrive in a primary succession area (i.e. lichens) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Secondary succession • Secondary succession = a disturbance dramatically alters, but does not destroy, all local organisms - The remaining organisms form “building blocks” which help shape the process of succession - Fires, hurricanes, farming, logging • Climax community = remains in place with few changes - Until another disturbance restarts succession © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Communities may undergo shifts • The dynamics of community change are more variable and less predictable than thought - Conditions at one stage may promote another stage - Competition may inhibit progression to another stage - Chance factors also affect changes • Phase (regime) shift = the overall character of the community fundamentally changes - Some crucial threshold is passed, a keystone species is lost, or an exotic species invades - i.e. overfishing and depletion of fish and turtles has allowed algae to dominate corals © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Community cohesion • Frederick Clements = viewed communities as cohesive entities, with integrated parts - Its members remain associated over space and time - The community shared similar limiting factors and evolutionary histories • Henry Gleason = maintained that each species responds independently to its own limiting factors - Species join or leave communities without greatly altering the community’s composition - The most widely accepted view of ecologists today © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Invasive species threaten stability • Invasive species = non-native (exotic) organisms that spread widely and become dominant in a community - Introduced deliberately or accidentally from elsewhere - Growth-limiting factors (predators, disease, competitors, etc.) are removed or absent - They have major ecological effects - Chestnut blight from Asia wiped out American chestnut trees • Some species help people (i.e., European honeybees) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Two invasive mussels © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Controlling invasive species • Techniques to control invasive species - Removing them manually - Applying toxic chemicals - Drying them out - Depriving them of oxygen - Stressing them with heat, sound, electricity, carbon dioxide, or ultraviolet light • Control and eradication are hard and expensive Prevention, rather than control, is the best policy © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Altered communities can be restored • Humans have dramatically changed ecological systems - Severely degraded systems cease to function • Ecological restoration = efforts to restore communities • Restoration is informed by restoration ecology = the science of restoring an area to an earlier condition - To restore the system’s functionality (i.e. filtering of water by a wetland) - It is difficult, time-consuming, and expensive • It is best to protect natural systems from degradation in the first place © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Restoration efforts • Prairie restoration = replanting native species, controlling invasive species • The world’s largest project = Florida Everglades - Flood control and irrigation removed water - Populations of wading birds dropped 90-95% - It will take 30 years and billions of dollars to restore natural water flow © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Widely separated regions share similarities • Biome = major regional complex of similar communities recognized by - Plant type - Vegetation structure © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiple factors determine a biome • The type of biome depends on abiotic factors - Temperature, precipitation, soil type, atmospheric circulation • Climatographs = a climate diagram showing - An area’s mean monthly temperature and precipitation - Similar biomes occupy similar latitudes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Aquatic systems have biome-like patterns • Various aquatic systems comprise distinct communities - Coastlines, continental shelves - Open ocean, deep sea - Coral reefs, kelp forests • Some coastal systems (estuaries, marshes, etc.) have both aquatic and terrestrial components • Aquatic systems are shaped by - Water temperature, salinity, and dissolved nutrients - Wave action, currents, depth, light levels - Substrate type, and animal and plant life © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperate deciduous forest • Deciduous trees lose their leaves each fall - They remain dormant during winter • Mid-latitude forests in Europe, East China, Eastern North America • Even, year-round precipitation • Fertile soils • Forests = oak, beech, maple © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperate grasslands • More extreme temperature difference - Between winter and summer • Less precipitation • Also called steppe or prairie - Once widespread, but has been converted to agriculture - Bison, prairie dogs, groundnesting birds, pronghorn © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperate rainforest • Coastal Pacific Northwest • Great deal of precipitation • Coniferous trees: cedar, spruce, hemlock, fir • Moisture-loving animals - Banana slug • Erosion and landslides affect the fertile soil • Lumber and paper • Most old-growth is gone © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical rainforest • Southeast Asia, west Africa Central and South America • Year-round rain and warm temperatures • Dark and damp • Lush vegetation • Diverse species - But in low densities • Very poor, acidic soils © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical dry forest • Also called tropical deciduous forest - Plants drop leaves during the dry season • India, Africa, South America, north Australia • Wet and dry seasons • Warm, but less rainfall • Converted to agriculture - Severe soil erosion © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Savanna • Grassland interspersed with trees • Africa, South America, Australia, India • Precipitation is only during the rainy season • Animals gather near water holes • Zebras, gazelles, giraffes, lions, hyenas © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Desert • Minimal precipitation • Some are bare, with sand dunes (Sahara) • Some are heavily vegetated (Sonoran) • They are not always hot - Temperatures vary widely • Saline soils • Animals = nocturnal, nomadic • Plants = thick skins, spines © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Tundra • Russia, Canada, Scandinavia • Minimal precipitation • Extremely cold winters • Permafrost = permanently frozen soil - Melting due to climate change • Few animals: polar bears, musk oxen, caribou, migratory birds • Lichens, low vegetation, few trees © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Boreal forest (taiga) • Canada, Alaska, Russia, Scandinavia • A few evergreen tree species • Cool and dry climate - Long, cold winters - Short, cool summers • Nutrient poor, acidic soil • Moose, wolves, bears, lynx, migratory birds © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chaparral • Occurs in small patches around the globe • Mediterranean Sea, Chile, California, south Australia • High seasonal biome - Mild, wet winters - Warm, dry summers • Frequent fires • Densely thicketed, evergreen shrubs © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Altitudes create “latitudinal patterns” • Vegetative communities rapidly change along mountain slopes • The climate varies with altitude • A mountain climber in the Andes - Begins in the tropics and ends on a glacier • Rainshadow effect = air going over a mountain releases moisture - Creating an arid region on the other side Hiking up a mountain in the southwest U.S. is like walking from Mexico to Canada © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Conclusion • Biomes and communities help us understand how the world functions • Species interactions affect communities - Predation, parasitism, competition, mutualism - Causing weak and strong, direct and indirect effects • Feeding relationships are represented by trophic levels and food webs • Humans have altered many communities • Ecological restoration attempts to undo the negative changes that we have caused © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Mutualism is a form of species interaction where: a) Both species are harmed b) One species benefits, but the other is harmed c) Both species benefit d) One species excludes another from a particular area © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which of the following is NOT an exploitative interaction? a) Predation b) Herbivory c) Parasitism d) All of these are exploitative interactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review An example of resource partitioning would be: a) One species eating larger berries, another species eating smaller berries b) One species moving out of an area to find new resources c) A host species becoming more vulnerable to parasitism d) A pine tree evolving thicker pinecones to reduce consumption by squirrels © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which statement is NOT true about trophic levels? a) Plants are autotrophs and occupy the first trophic level. b) Detritivores consume waste products or dead bodies. c) Biomass and energy decrease going up the food chain. d) There are more predator species than prey species in an area. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Primary succession would take place on all of the following EXCEPT: a) The slopes of a newly formed volcanic island b) Wetlands in Texas, following Hurricane Rita c) A receding glacier d) Vegetation regrowing in a drying lake © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Because communities can undergo phase (regime) shifts, we must remember that: a) Secondary succession results in a predictable series of stages. b) We can count on being able to reverse damage caused by human disturbance. c) We cannot count on being able to reverse damage caused by human disturbance. d) Changes humans set in motion will not be permanent. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review All of the following are ways to control invasive species, EXCEPT: a) Remove individuals from the area b) Stress them by noise c) Trap them d) Encourage them to hybridize with another species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which biome has year-round rain and warm temperatures, is dark and damp, and has lush vegetation? a) Tropical rainforest b) Temperate grasslands c) Chaparral d) Taiga © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which biome is dominated by a few evergreen species, has long, cold winters, and moose, wolves, bear, and lynx? a) Tropical rainforest b) Temperate grasslands c) Temperate rainforest d) Taiga © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Weighing the Issues Would you be willing to decrease the amount of meat you consume (e.g., eat lower on the food chain) to decrease your ecological footprint? a) Yes, if the extra food was sent to countries with starving people. b) Yes, because it would decrease environmental degradation. c) I don’t eat meat now. d) No, I don’t see the need to eat lower on the food chain. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Weighing the Issues Although mustangs are not native to the United States, they exist in several western states on federally owned land. As an introduced species, what should be done with them? a) As an exotic species, they should immediately be removed and adopted or killed. b) Although they are an exotic species, they are part of our heritage, and should be allowed to stay. c) They have been here so long, we should just leave them alone. d) Many countries eat horse flesh, so we should round them up and export them to horse-eating countries. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data What does this figure illustrate? a) A predator–prey cycle b) Competitive exclusion c) Resource partitioning d) Succession © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data In this climatograph for Vaigach, Russia, in the tundra biome, winters are: a) Long and warm b) Short and cool c) Long and cold d) Short and warm © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.