Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

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Chapter 2
Keeping Food Safe
© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)
and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
What Is a
Foodborne Illness?
All restaurant and foodservice operations must keep food safe. Every
person in the operation must work toward this goal.
 A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food.
 A foodborne-illness outbreak is when two or more people get the
same illness after eating the same food.
 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
estimates that there will be 76 million cases of foodborne illness in
the United States each year.
 High-risk populations have a higher risk of getting a foodborne
illness than others.
 The immune system is the body’s defense against illness. When
the system is weak, it cannot fight off illness as easily as a healthy
system.
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2
Forms of Contamination
To prevent foodborne illness, it is important to recognize the hazards
that can make food unsafe.
 A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm.
 In the preparation of food, hazards are divided into three categories:
biological, chemical, and physical.
 Contamination means that harmful things are present in food,
making it unsafe to eat.
 Food can become unsafe through:
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2.1
Poor personal hygiene
Time-temperature abuse
Cross-contamination
Poor cleaning and sanitizing
Purchasing from unapproved suppliers
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3
Biological Contamination
Microorganisms are small, living organisms that can be seen only
through a microscope.
 The four types of pathogens that can contaminate food
and cause foodborne illness are:
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Viruses
Bacteria
Parasites
Fungi
 Biological toxins, another form of biological
contamination, are made by pathogens, or they come
from a plant or an animal.
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Biological Contamination (cont.)
 Pathogens need six conditions to grow. An easy way to
remember these conditions is by remembering the
phrase FAT TOM, for Food, Acidity, Temperature (FAT),
Time, Oxygen, and Moisture (TOM).
 Food that is most vulnerable for pathogen growth is food
that needs time and temperature control for safety, or
TCS food for short.
 To control temperature, foodhandlers must keep TCS
food out of the temperature danger zone.
 Ready-to-eat food, or food that can be eaten without
further preparation, washing, or cooking, also needs
careful handling to prevent contamination.
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Biological Contamination (cont.)
 Viruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness. Restaurant and
foodservice managers must understand what viruses are and how
they can make people sick.
 Bacteria also cause many foodborne illnesses. Knowing what
bacteria are and how they grow can help you to control them.
 Parasites cannot grow in food. They must live in a host organism to
grow.
 A host is a person, animal, or plant on which another organism lives and feeds.
 Fungi can cause illness, but usually they cause food to spoil. Fungi
are found in air, soil, plants, water, and some food.
 Mold that is visible to the human eye is actually a tangled mass of thousands of
tiny mold plants.
 Yeast can spoil food quickly. The signs of spoilage include the smell or taste of
alcohol, white or pink discoloration, slime, and bubbles.
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Chemical Contamination
 Chemicals contaminants come from everyday items that
are found in restaurant and foodservice operations and
may cause foodborne illnesses.
 Store chemicals in a separate area away from food,
utensils, and equipment used for food.
 Foodservice chemicals can contaminate food if they are
used or stored in the wrong ways. This includes
cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, and machine lubricants.
 To prevent toxic-metal poisoning, only use utensils and
equipment, including kettles, pots, serving ware and
pans, that are made for handling food.
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Physical Contamination
 Physical contamination happens when objects get into food.
 Contaminants can be naturally occurring, such as the bones
in fish, or result from accidents and mistakes.
 Common physical contaminants include:
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Metal shavings from cans
Glass from broken lightbulbs
Fingernails, hair, and bandages
Jewelry
Fruit pits
 Most physical contamination can be prevented by inspecting
food closely, practicing good personal hygiene, and following
preparation procedures.
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Food Defense
 Restaurant and foodservice employees also must take
steps to prevent people from purposely contaminating
food.
 One important way to prevent tampering is to control
access to the operation’s food storage and preparation
areas.
 All employees in an operation, from buser to executive
chef, should report anything that seems suspicious.
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Allergens
A food allergy is the body’s negative reaction to a food protein.
 Employees should be aware of major allergens and the
menu items that contain them.
 When serving customers with food allergies, servers must
be ready to answer customers’ questions about any menu
item.
 Servers should never take a guess about what a menu item
contains. If they don’t know, they should ask someone who
does.
 Cross-contact occurs when allergens are transferred from
food containing an allergen to the food served to the
customer.
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U.S. Regulation
of Food Safety
 Most regulations that affect restaurant and foodservice
operations in the United States are written at the state
level, but federal, state, and local governments are all
involved.
 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) writes the FDA
Food Code, which recommends specific food safety
regulations for the restaurant and foodservice industry.
 An inspection is a formal review or examination conducted
to see if an operation is following food safety laws.
 Successful restaurant and foodservice managers
understand local food safety requirements and design
policies that address them.
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Section 2.1 Summary
 A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food.
 High-risk populations include people with weakened immune
systems.
 Pathogens need six conditions to grow. These conditions can
be remembered by FAT TOM: food, acidity, temperature, time,
oxygen, and moisture.
 Those foods that need time and temperature control for safety
are called TCS foods. Ready-to-eat food also needs careful
handling to prevent contamination.
 Biological contamination can be prevented by purchasing
from approved, reputable suppliers, and then cooking and
holding dishes correctly.
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Section 2.1
Summary (cont.)
 To store chemicals properly, keep them in a separate area
away from food, utensils, and equipment used for food.
 A food defense system helps to prevent people from
purposely contaminating food. One important way to prevent
tampering is to make sure access to an operation’s food is
controlled through use of uniforms and name tags.
 The most common allergens include milk and dairy products,
eggs and egg products, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy, peanuts,
and tree nuts.
 The restaurant and foodservice industry is monitored by many
agencies. The FDA writes the FDA Food Code, and each
state adopts the code as it sees fit. State and local health
departments then enforce these laws.
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How Foodhandlers Can
Contaminate Food
Good personal hygiene is a key factor in the prevention of foodborne
illnesses. Successful managers make personal hygiene a priority.
 Foodhandlers can contaminate food in a variety of
situations.
 Foodhandlers are not just the people who prepare food.
Servers and even dishwashers are considered
foodhandlers.
 To prevent foodhandlers from contaminating food,
managers must create personal hygiene policies.
These policies must address personal cleanliness,
clothing, hand care, and health.
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Personal Cleanliness
and Work Attire
Personal cleanliness is an important part of personal hygiene.
Pathogens can be found on hair and skin that aren’t kept clean.
 All foodhandlers must bathe or shower before work and keep their
hair clean.
 Dirty clothing may carry pathogens that can cause foodborne
illnesses.
 To avoid spreading foodborne illnesses, foodhandlers should:
 Always cover their hair.
 Remove aprons and store them in the right place when leaving prep
areas.
 Wear clean clothing every day.
 Remove jewelry from hands and arms before preparing food or when
working around prep areas.
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Handwashing
Handwashing is the most important part of personal hygiene.
Foodhandlers must wash their hands before they start work.
 Foodhandlers must also wash their hands after:
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2.2
Using the restroom
Handling raw meat, poultry, or seafood
Touching the hair, face, or body
Sneezing, coughing, or using a tissue
Eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco
Handling chemicals that might affect food safety
Taking out garbage
Clearing tables or busing dirty dishes
Touching clothing or aprons
Handling money
Touching anything else that may contaminate hands
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Bare-Hand Contact/
Illness Work Requirements
 Using bare hands to handle ready-to-eat food can
increase the risk of contaminating it. Gloves, tongs, and
deli tissue can help keep food safe by creating a barrier
between hands and food.
 Restaurant and foodservice operations have a
responsibility to ensure that their employees do not
spread foodborne illnesses.
 Foodhandlers who are sick can spread pathogens to
food. Depending on the illness, they might not be able to
work with food until they recover.
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Section 2.2 Summary
 Various personal behaviors of foodhandlers can contaminate food.
 Handwashing is the most important part of personal hygiene. It must
be done at the right times in the right way.
 Personal cleanliness practices include bathing or showering before
work, keeping hair clean, wearing clean clothes, removing jewelry
from hands and arms, and keeping nails clean.
 Proper work attire includes always covering hair, wearing clean
clothes, removing aprons and storing them in the right place after
leaving the prep area, and removing jewelry from hands and arms.
 Using bare hands to handle ready-to-eat food can increase the risk
of contaminating it.
 Employees should not work with or around food when they have a
sore throat with a fever.
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Cross-Contamination
The spread of pathogens from one surface or food to another is called
cross-contamination.
 The steps that an operation takes to buy, store, prepare,
cook, and serve food is known as the flow of food.
 All steps in the flow of food pose risks to food safety.
 Understanding where contamination can happen in this
flow and how to prevent it are critical tasks for restaurant
and foodservice professionals.
 The most basic way to prevent cross-contamination is to
separate raw food and ready-to-eat food.
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Time-Temperature Abuse
Most foodborne illnesses happen because TCS food has been timetemperature abused.
 Food is time-temperature abused any time it is cooked to
the wrong internal temperature, held at the wrong
temperature, or cooled or reheated incorrectly.
 Food has been time-temperature abused when it remains
at 41˚F to 135˚F. This is called the temperature danger
zone because pathogens grow in this range.
 The longer food stays in the temperature danger zone,
the more time pathogens have to grow.
 If food is held in this range for four or more hours, throw it
out.
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Thermometers
Three types of thermometers are commonly used in operations—
bimetallic stemmed, thermocouples, and thermistors.
 A bimetallic stemmed thermometer can check temperatures
from 0˚F to 220˚F. This makes it useful for checking both hot
and cold types of food.
 Thermocouples and thermistors are also common in
restaurant and foodservice operations. They measure
temperatures through a metal probe and display them
digitally.
 Infrared thermometers measure the temperatures of food
and equipment surfaces. They do not need to touch a surface
to check its temperature, so there is less chance for crosscontamination and damage to food.
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Purchasing
All the food used in a restaurant or foodservice operation should come
from approved, reputable suppliers.
 An approved food supplier is one that has been
inspected by appropriate agencies and meets all
applicable local, state, and federal laws.
 Restaurant and foodservice purchasers must make sure
that their suppliers use good food safety practices along
the supply chain.
 An operation’s supply chain can include growers,
shippers, packers, manufacturers, distributors (trucking
fleets and warehouses), and/or local markets.
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Receiving
To keep food safe during receiving, an operation needs to have enough
trained staff available to receive, inspect, and store the food.
 Use thermometers to check food temperatures during receiving.
 The packaging of food and nonfood items should be intact and
clean. Reject any items with packaging problems or with signs of
pest damage or expired use-by dates.
 Poor food quality is sometimes a sign of time-temperature abuse.
 Shellfish can be received either shucked or live. Make sure that raw
shucked shellfish are packaged in containers for one-time use only.
 Eggs must be clean and unbroken when you receive them.
 Milk and dairy products must be received at 41˚F or lower unless
otherwise specified by law. They also must be pasteurized and meet
FDA Grade A standards.
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Storage
Food can become unsafe if stored improperly. Store all TCS food
at 41°F or lower, or at 135°F or higher.
 Rotate food in storage to use the oldest inventory first
using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.
 Always store food to prevent cross-contamination. Store
refrigerated raw meat, poultry, and seafood separately
from ready-to-eat food.
 Store raw meat, poultry, and seafood in coolers in top-tobottom order based on the minimum internal cooking
temperature of each food. Meat cooked to higher
temperatures is always stored beneath meat cooked to
lower temperatures.
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Preparation
Time-temperature abuse can happen during preparation. To avoid timetemperature abuse, remove from the refrigerator only as much food as
can be prepared in a short period of time.
 Prepare food in small batches so that ingredients don’t
sit out for too long in the temperature danger zone.
 Remember that freezing doesn’t kill pathogens. When
frozen food is thawed and exposed to the temperature
danger zone, any pathogens in the food will begin to
grow.
 To reduce pathogen growth, never thaw food at room
temperature.
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Cooking
Cooking food to the correct temperature is critical for keeping it safe.
 Every type of TCS food has a minimum internal
temperature that it must reach.
 Once food reaches its minimum internal temperature,
make sure that it stays at that temperature for a specific
amount of time.
 Operations that primarily serve high-risk populations,
such as nursing homes and day-care centers, cannot
serve certain items, such as raw seed sprouts, raw or
undercooked eggs, raw or undercooked meat, or
seafood.
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Holding, Cooling,
and Reheating
If cooked food isn’t served immediately, it must be kept out of the temperature
danger zone by cooling it quickly, reheating it correctly, and/or holding it correctly.
 To hold TCS food safely, hold hot food at 135°F or higher and hold
cold food at 41°F or lower. Throw out any food that’s in the
temperature danger zone.
 Cool TCS food from 135°F to 41°F or lower within six hours. First,
cool food from 135°F to 70°F within two hours. Then cool it to 41°F
or lower in the next four hours.
 If foodhandlers plan to reheat leftover or previously prepared TCS
food so that it can be held for service, they must heat the food to an
internal temperature of 165°F. The food needs to go from storage
temperature to 165°F within two hours and then stay at that
temperature for 15 seconds.
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Serving
The biggest threat to food that is ready to be served is contamination.
 The kitchen staff must:
 Handle ready-to-eat food with tongs, deli sheets, or gloves.
 Use separate utensils for each food item.
 Store serving utensils in the food with the handle extended
above the rim of the container to prevent people accidentally
touching the food while they try to retrieve the utensil.
 The service staff needs to be just as careful as the kitchen
staff.
 Any delay between preparation and service increases the
threat to food safety. Food that will be served off-site has a
greater risk of time-temperature abuse and contamination.
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Section 2.3 Summary
 Cross-contamination can be prevented by making sure workstations,
cutting boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized; not allowing
ready-to-eat food to touch surfaces that have come in contact with
raw meat, seafood, or poultry; preparing different kinds of foods at
different times; and cleaning and sanitizing work surfaces and
utensils between each product.
 To prevent time-temperature abuse, minimize the amount of time
that food spends in the temperature danger zone.
 Three types of thermometers commonly used in operations are
bimetallic stemmed thermometers, thermocouples, and thermistors.
 An approved food source (supplier) is one that has been inspected
and meets all applicable local, state, and federal laws.
 All TCS food must be stored at 41°F or lower or at 135°F or higher.
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Section 2.3 Summary (cont.)
 Hold hot TCS food at 135°F or higher, hold cold TCS food at 41°F or
lower; cool TCS food from 135°F to 41°F or lower within six hours—
135°F to 70°F within the first two hours, then to 41°F or lower in the
next four hours.
 Reheat TCS food for hot holding by heating it from storage
temperature to an internal temperature of 165°F in less than two
hours, and then making sure the food stays at that temperature for
15 seconds.
 Kitchen staff should handle ready-to-eat food with tongs, deli sheets,
or gloves; use separate utensils for each item; clean and sanitize
after each serving task; and store serving utensils in the food with
the handle extended above the rim of the container.
 Food prepared and served off-site must be packed in insulated food
containers and checked for internal food temperature regularly.
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The HACCP Plan
A food safety management system is a group of procedures and
practices that work together to prevent foodborne illness.
 A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, or HACCP, system
identifies major hazards at specific points within a food’s flow
through the operation.
 An effective HACCP system is based on a written plan that
considers an operation’s menu, customers, equipment, processes,
and operations. It is based on seven basic principles:
1.
2.
3.
4.
2.4
Conduct a hazard analysis.
Determine critical control
points (CCPs).
Establish critical limits.
Establish monitoring
procedures.
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
5.
6.
7.
Identify corrective actions.
Verify that the system
works.
Establish procedures for
record keeping and
documentation.
31
HACCP Principles (cont.)
 Principle 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis:
 First, look for the potential hazards in the food an operation
serves. These hazards might be physical, chemical, or
biological.
 Principle 2: Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs):
 Find the points in the process where the identified hazard(s) can
be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels. These are
the critical control points (CCPs). Depending on the menu item,
there may be more than one CCP.
 Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits:
 For each CCP you have identified, determine its critical limit. A
critical limit is a requirement, such as a temperature requirement,
that must be met to prevent, eliminate, or reduce a hazard.
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32
HACCP Principles (cont.)
 Principle 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures:
 Determine the best way for your operation to check to make sure
critical limits are being met. Make sure the limits are consistently met.
 Principle 5: Identify Corrective Actions:
 If a critical limit hasn’t been met, you must take a corrective action—a
step to fix the problem. Corrective actions should be determined in
advance so everyone knows what to do when critical limits aren’t met.
 Principle 6: Verify that the System Works:
 Determine if the plan is working as intended. Evaluate it on a regular
basis.
 Principle 7: Establish Procedures for Record Keeping and
Documentation:
 Maintain the HACCP plan and keep all documentation created when
developing it.
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33
Section 2.4 Summary
 The HACCP principles are as follows:

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Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.
Principle 2: Determine critical control points (CCPs).
Principle 3: Establish critical limits.
Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures.
Principle 5: Identify corrective action.
Principle 6: Establish verification procedures.
Principle 7: Establish procedures for record keeping and
documentation.
 A HACCP system focuses on identifying specific points within
a food item’s flow through the operation that are essential to
prevent, eliminate, or reduce hazards to safe levels.
2.4
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
34
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